Published April 25, 2021. Updated February 4, 2024. Open access.

Gallery ❯

Bridled Forest Gecko (Gonatodes humeralis)

Reptiles of Ecuador | Sauria | Sphaerodactylidae | Gonatodes humeralis

English common names: Bridled Forest Gecko, Rainbow Sun-Gecko, Trinidad Gecko, Orange-spotted Gecko, Spot-nosed Gecko, South American Clawed Gecko.

Spanish common names: Geco tornasol, salamanquesa de Trinidad.

Recognition: ♂♂ 9.7 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. Snout–vent length=4.2 cm. ♀♀ 9.3 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. Snout–vent length=4.1 cm..1 Geckos of the genus Gonatodes differ from other lizards in Ecuador based on their diurnal habits, lack of moveable eyelids, undilated digits having exposed claws, and lack of a scaly supraciliary flap (present in Lepidoblepharis).2,3 Bridled Forest Geckos differ from the two other Gonatodes occurring on the Ecuadorian Amazon by having a thin bright yellowish vertical bar just anterior to the arm. In G. concinnatus, the line is broad, white, black-bordered, and never anterior to the arm.4 Females of G. caudiscutatus lack the shoulder line and the males can be identified based on their distinctive head coloration: bright yellow to orange with contrasting dark brown to black reticulations.5 Males of G. humeralis differ markedly from females. They are brightly colored, ornamented with red, yellow, and bluish vermiculations (Fig. 1), but they can change to a dull gray color under circumstances such as stress or during social interactions.6 Females and juveniles are brownish overall.1 Individuals, when sleeping, have a whitish color.7,8

Figure showing variation among individuals of Gonatodes humeralis

Figure 1: Individuals Gonatodes humeralis: Yasuní National Park, Orellana province, Ecuador (); Palmarí Reserve, Amazonas state, Brazil ().

Natural history: Gonatodes humeralis is a common diurnal lizard adapted to life on vertical surfaces. This species is a tree-trunk specialist, but can also be seen on logs, roots, lianas, palm fronds, and leaf-litter.3 Lizards spend most of their time at the base of trees (~71–213 cm off the ground)9,10 but they range from the ground level all the way up to the canopy at 40 m above the ground.10,11 The species occurs in old-growth to heavily disturbed evergreen forests, seasonally flooded as well as terra-firme,1,11,12 but it has also been recorded in forest fragments within xeric shrubland regions in Brazil.13,14 In some instances, G. humeralis occurs in sympatry with G. concinnatus,1 but in Amazonian Ecuador, the latter occurs in more pristine habitats.6,10 Gonatodes humeralis appears to be more common in forest clearings, rural gardens,15 parks in cities,1 houses,16,17 and in plantations (including Eucalyptus, cocoa, and palm hearts).6,12,18

Although the preferred microhabitat of Gonatodes humeralis seems to be small to medium-sized (~9.5–30 cm in diameter) trees with crevices,10,19,20 the species also occupies walls,3,6 thatch ceilings, fences, wood posts,4 trash piles,21 and electrical tubes.11 Usually, no more than three individuals occupy the same tree,1 and males perch higher than females.22,23 Bridled Forest Geckos are active between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm.1,13 Most of their activity occurs on bright cloudy days when the ambient temperature is 24.2–29.4°C,6,22 basking where sunlight hits exposed surfaces. On sunny days, the geckos retreat during the hot mid-day hours,4,9 with most activity occurring in shaded rather than sunny spots.6 At night, individuals sleep on leaves adjacent to tree trunks 10–600 cm above the ground.11,16 However, these geckos can also be active at night if artificial lighting is available.21

Individuals of Gonatodes humeralis are ambush predators that attack mobile insects that pass nearby (within around 10 cm).3,24 The average duration per foraging movement is 13.2 seconds.25 They feed mostly on insects (including beetles, roaches, mantids, termites, grasshoppers, crickets, springtails, hemipterans, butterflies, moths, earwigs, flies, ants, and insect larvae and pupae)3 but also on spiders, acari, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions, centipedes, millipedes, isopods, mollusks, and earthworms.6,9,24 On occasion, the geckos also eat their own shed skin as well as eggs of their own species.24 Bridled Forest Geckos are extremely wary and and move quickly for short distances.4 When disturbed, they tend to move to the opposite side of the trunk, often running down to the leaf litter or retreating into crevices.4,22,26 Individuals also lift and curl up their tails either as a decoy or to mimic a scorpion.27 If captured, they can readily shed the tail as well as portions of their skin.4

There are records of snakes (Bothrops atrox, B. taeniatus,28 Drymoluber dichrous, Chironius fuscus, Rhinobothryum lentiginosum, Siphlophis compressus, Oxybelis aeneus,29,30 Xenodon severus,8 Xenoxybelis argenteus, and Taeniophallus brevirostris), lizards (Ameiva ameiva and Plica plica),3,28 birds,31,32 and monkeys11 preying upon adults of G. humeralis.9,21 The snake Drepanoides anomalus is reported as predator of the eggs.28 There is an instance of fly larvae (family Sarcophagidae) parasitizing a member of this species.33

The breeding season in Gonatodes humeralis appears to take place year-round,21 with a peak in the rainy months (March–July in Ecuador).23 Both males and females attain sexual maturity when they reach ~3.1 cm in snout-vent length.6 Males mate with several females.34 Females produce clutches of one9,21 egg and lay it in communal nesting sites such as under bark, inside ant mounts, hollow sticks,3 rotten logs and lianas, palm debris, termite nests, in crevices, among dead leaves, rocks, and within thatched roofs.1,4,6 Clutches can be laid at intervals of 13–56 days,8 and the incubation period is 94–110 days (~3–3.7 months).1 Nests can be composed of up to 18 eggs and are presumably used year after year.6,35 The eggs are usually found deposited along the eggs of other lizard species, such as Anolis trachyderma, Arthrosaura reticulata, and Thecadactylus solimoensis.6

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Conservation: Least Concern Believed to be safe from extinction given current circumstances..36,37 Gonatodes humeralis is listed in this category given its wide distribution, presence in major protected areas, lack of widespread threats, and ability to thrive in human-modified environments.36 The species occurs over areas that retain the majority of their vegetation cover. In Brazil, 51% of the occurrence area of the species is inside protected areas, and about 85% of its distribution still holds continuous forest cover.38 Furthermore, the species appears to be increasing in abundance in deforested areas, with population densities being negatively related to forest regeneration stage.20 Some populations in Ecuador are believed to be the result of recent introduction by humans.6

Distribution: Gonatodes humeralis is the most widespread species of the genus in Amazonia.1 It occurs throughout the Amazon basin in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador (Fig. 2), French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. It also occurs in Trinidad Island as well as marginally in the Caatinga biome in Brazil. Its entire range of distribution is estimated to be ~3,688,274 km2.38

Distribution of Gonatodes humeralis in Ecuador

Figure 2: Distribution of Gonatodes humeralis in Ecuador. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the presence localities included in the map.

Etymology: The generic name Gonatodes, which comes from the Greek words gonatos (meaning “node”) and odes (meaning “resembling”),39 probably refers to the form of the digits which are slender but in which the joints are prominent as swellings.40 The specific epithet humeralis comes from the Latin humerus (=shoulder) and the suffix -alis (=pertaining to),39 and refers to the bright vertical ante-humeral bar.

See it in the wild: Bridled Forest Geckos can be seen with almost complete certainty in areas having adequate tree density throughout their area of distribution in Ecuador. The species is particularly abundant in forest clearings in Yasuní National Park and Cuyabeno Reserve. Individuals are more easily located by scanning the base of trees during mornings cloudy or sunny mornings.

Acknowledgments: This account was published with the support of Secretaría Nacional de Educación Superior Ciencia y Tecnología (programa INEDITA; project: Respuestas a la crisis de biodiversidad: la descripción de especies como herramienta de conservación; No 00110378), Programa de las Naciones Unidas (PNUD), and Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ).

Special thanks to Wybo Zijlstra for symbolically adopting the Bridled Forest Gecko and helping bring the Reptiles of Ecuador book project to life.

Click here to adopt a species.

Author: Alejandro ArteagaaAffiliation: Khamai Foundation, Quito, Ecuador.

Photographers: Jose VieiraaAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,bAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador. and Sebastián Di DoménicocAffiliation: Keeping Nature, Bogotá, Colombia.

How to cite? Arteaga A (2021) Bridled Forest Gecko (Gonatodes humeralis). In: Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J (Eds) Reptiles of Ecuador: Life in the middle of the world. Available from: DOI: 10.47051/AUHA6604

Literature cited:

  1. Avila-Pires TCS (1995) Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1–706.
  2. Vanzolini PE (1968) Geography of the South American Gekkonidae. Arquivos de Zoologia 17: 85–112.
  3. Duellman WE (2005) Cusco amazónico: the lives of amphibians and reptiles in an Amazonian rainforest. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 433 pp.
  4. Vitt LJ, De la Torre S (1996) A research guide to the lizards of Cuyabeno. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, 165 pp.
  5. Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J, Tapia W, Guayasamin JM (2019) Reptiles of the Galápagos: life on the Enchanted Islands. Tropical Herping, Quito, 208 pp. DOI: 10.47051/AQJU7348
  6. Vitt LJ, Zani PA, Monteiro de Barros AA (1997) Ecological variation among populations of the gekkonid lizard Gonatodes humeralis in the Amazon Basin. Copeia 1997: 32–43. DOI: 10.2307/1447837
  7. Hoogmoed MS (1973) Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam. IV. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Surinam. Biogeographica 4: 1–419.
  8. Meede U (1984) Herpetologische Studien über Echsen (Sauria) in einem begrenzten Gebiet des Tropischen Regenwaldes in Peru: morphologische Kriterien, Autökologie und Zoogeographie. Artenliste der Reptilien im Untersuchungsgebiet. PhD thesis, Universitat Hamburg, 189 pp.
  9. Vitt LJ, Souza RA, Sartorius SS, Avila-Pires TCS, Espósito MC (2000) Comparative ecology of sympatric Gonatodes (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in the western Amazon of Brazil. Copeia 2000: 83–95. DOI: 10.1643/0045-8511(2000)2000[0083:CEOSGS]2.0.CO;2
  10. Vitt LJ, Zani PA (1996) Organization of a taxonomically diverse lizard assemblage in Amazonian Ecuador. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1313–1335.
  11. Field notes, Reptiles of Ecuador book project.
  12. Rodrigues MT (1980) Descrição de uma nova espécie de Gonatodes da Amazonia (Sauria, Gekkonidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 33: 309–314.
  13. Roberto IJ, Pinto T, Schlickmann A, Fraga A (2014) From Amazonia to the semi-arid: the unexpected record of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) for the Caatinga Biome. Herpetology Notes 7: 309–311.
  14. Carvalho de Oliveira FR, Cunha Passos D, Borges-Nojosa DM (2021) Ecology of the lizard Gonatodes humeralis (Sphaerodactylidae) in a coastal area of the Brazilian semiarid: what differs from the Amazonian populations? Journal of Arid Environments 190: 104506. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2021.104506
  15. Hoogmoed MS, Avila-Pires TCS (2015) Lepidodactylus lugubris (Duméril & Bibron 1836) (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), an introduced lizard new for Brazil, with remarks on and correction of its distribution in the New World. Zootaxa 4000: 90–110. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4000.1.4
  16. Hoogmoed MS, Avila-Pires TCS (1991) Annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53–88.
  17. De la Riva IJ (1993) Ecología de una comunidad neotropical de anfibios durante la estación lluviosa. PhD thesis, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 383 pp.
  18. Sturaro MJ, Avila-Pires TCS (2011) Taxonomic revision of the geckos of the Gonatodes concinnatus complex (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae), with description of two new species. Zootaxa 2869: 1–36. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.2869.1.1
  19. Nunes VS (1984) Ciclo de atividade e utilização do habitat por Gonatodes humeralis (Sauria, Gekkonidae) em Manaus, Amazonas. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 35: 147–152.
  20. Oda WY (2008) Microhabitat utilization and population density of the lizard Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) in forest areas in Manaus, Amazon, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 3: 165–177.
  21. Dixon JR, Soini P (1986) The reptiles of the upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, 154 pp.
  22. MirandaI JP, Ricci-Lobão A, Rocha CF (2010) Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil. Zoologia 27: 35–39. DOI: 10.1590/S1984-46702010000100006
  23. Miranda G, Andrade V (2003) Seasonality in diet, perch use, and reproduction of the gecko Gonatodes humeralis from eastern Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Herpetology 37: 433–438. DOI: 10.1670/0022-1511(2003)037[0433:SIDPUA]2.0.CO;2
  24. Valencia JA, Garzón K (2011) Guía de anfibios y reptiles en ambientes cercanos a las estaciones del OCP. Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Quito, 268 pp.
  25. Cooper WE (2005) Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61: 363–372. DOI: 10.1655/04-36.1
  26. Vanzolini PE (1972) Miscellaneous notes on the ecology of some Brazilian lizards (Sauria). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 26: 83–115.
  27. Caldeira Costa H, de Avelar São-Pedro V, Santana DJ, Neves Feio R (2009) Gonatodes humeralis (NCN). Defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 40: 221.
  28. Cunha OR, Nascimento FP (1978) Ofídios da Amazônia. X. As cobras da região leste do Pará. Papéis Avulsos Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 31: 1–218.
  29. Vitt LJ, Magnusson WE, Avila-Pires TCS, Pimentel Lima A (2008) Guide to the lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Áttema Design Editorial, Manaus, 176 pp.
  30. Martins M, Oliveira ME (1998) Natural history of snakes in forests of the Manaus region, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetological Natural History 6: 78–150.
  31. Okada Aguiar KM, Costa-Campos CE (2014) Gonatodes humeralis (Trinidad gecko). Predation. Herpetological Review 45: 498–499.
  32. Silva Kupriyanov VM (2013) Análise de conteúdo estomacal de aves Furnariidae (Passeriformes). MSc thesis, Universidade de São Paulo, 66 pp.
  33. Ascenso AC, De Oliveira LS, Filho FC (2017) Gonatodes humeralis (Trinidad Gecko) Endoparasitism. Herpetological Review 48: 644–645.
  34. Murphy JC, Downie R, Smith JM, Livingstone S, Mohammed R, Lehtinen RM, Eyre M, Sewlal JN, Noriega N, Casper GS, Anton T, Rutherford MG, Braswell AL, Jowers MJ (2018) A field guide to the amphibians & reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago Naturalist’s Club, Port of Spain, 336 pp.
  35. Oda WY (2004) Communal egg laying by Gonatodes humeralis (Sauria, Gekkonidae) in Manaus primary and secondary forest areas. Acta Amazonica 34: 331–332. DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672004000200020
  36. Calderón M, Perez P, Avila-Pires TCS, Aparicio J, Moravec J, Schargel W, Rivas G, Murphy J (2019) Gonatodes humeralis. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Available from: DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T44579283A44579292.en
  37. Reyes-Puig C (2015) Un método integrativo para evaluar el estado de conservación de las especies y su aplicación a los reptiles del Ecuador. MSc thesis, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 73 pp.
  38. Ribeiro-Júnior MA, Amaral S (2016) Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity 2: 195–421. DOI: 10.1080/23766808.2016.1236769
  39. Brown RW (1956) Composition of scientific words. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C., 882 pp.
  40. Russell AP, Baskerville J, Gamble T, Higham TE (2015) The evolution of digit form in Gonatodes (Gekkota: Sphaerodactylidae) and its bearing on the transition from frictional to adhesive contact in Gekkotans. Journal of Morphology 276: 1311–1132. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20420

Appendix 1: Locality data used to create the distribution map of Gonatodes humeralis in Ecuador (Fig. 2). Go to the section on symbols and abbreviations for a list of acronyms used.

ColombiaCaquetáFlorenciaiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaPutumayoQuililiiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaPutumayoRío PutumayoICN 3199; Calderón et al. 2023
ColombiaPutumayoSan MiguelICN 3174; Calderón et al. 2023
ColombiaPutumayoVereda PeneyaIAvH-R-9165; IAvH & ANH 2022
EcuadorMorona SantiagoPuerto Morona, 13 km W ofOnline multimedia
EcuadorMorona SantiagoRío CangaimeCarvajal-Campos 2018
EcuadorMorona SantiagoShuin MamusiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorMorona SantiagoVilla AshuaraAMNH 113884; VertNet
EcuadorNapo20 Km E Puerto NapoCAS 198623; VertNet
EcuadorNapoArchidonaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorNapoCotococha LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoHuaorani LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorNapoYachana LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorOrellanaApaikaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaBosque AluvialAlmendariz et al. 2011
EcuadorOrellanaChiruislaOnline multimedia
EcuadorOrellanaEl CocaAvila-Pires 1995
EcuadorOrellanaEl EdéniNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaGuiyeroAlbuja 2011
EcuadorOrellanaHacienda PrimaveraMHNG 2590.072; collection database
EcuadorOrellanaHuamayacuTorres-Carvajal & Salazar-Valenzuela 2012
EcuadorOrellanaHuiririmaTorres-Carvajal & Salazar-Valenzuela 2012
EcuadorOrellanaLago San PedroiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaNapo Wildlife CenterReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorOrellanaOnkone GareFelipe Campos, pers. comm.
EcuadorOrellanaPompeya Sur–IroPhoto by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaRío TimataiPhoto by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaRío Yasuní, near Lake JatuncochaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorOrellanaSan Francisco de ChictaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaTambocochaTorres-Carvajal & Salazar-Valenzuela 2012
EcuadorOrellanaTiputini Biodiversity StationCisneros-Heredia 2003
EcuadorOrellanaYarina LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorOrellanaYasuni Scientific StationThis work; Fig. 1
EcuadorPastazaBataburo LodgeOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaCampo VillanoPhoto by Carla Rodríguez
EcuadorPastazaChichirotaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorPastazaComunidad Killu AllpaFreddy Velásquez, pers. comm.
EcuadorPastazaCuraray MedioReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaJuyuintzaOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaKapawi LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaKurintzaOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaLorocachiReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaPlataforma CachiyacuRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorPastazaRío BobonazaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorPastazaRío ConamboRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorPastazaRío CorrientesRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorPastazaRío PastazaOrtega Andrade et al. 2010
EcuadorPastazaShiripuno LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaTigüinoRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorSucumbíosBloque 15Izquierdo et al. 2000
EcuadorSucumbíosCampo PlatanilloEnvirotec 2015
EcuadorSucumbíosComplejo de humedales CuyabenoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosCuyabeno LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosDureno, 10 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosDureno, reserve nearbyiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosEstación Amazonas OCPValencia & Garzón 2011
EcuadorSucumbíosEstación PUCE en CuyabenoVitt et al. 1997
EcuadorSucumbíosGarzacochaYánez-Muñóz & Venegas 2008
EcuadorSucumbíosLa BalsareñaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosLa Selva LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosLagartocochaUsma et al. 2016
EcuadorSucumbíosLago AgrioKU 297991; VertNet
EcuadorSucumbíosLimoncochaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
EcuadorSucumbíosPañacochaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosPlataforma Espejo 1Consultora Cinge 2012
EcuadorSucumbíosPuerto BolívarPhoto by Martín Bustamante
EcuadorSucumbíosRedondocochaYánez-Muñóz & Venegas 2008
EcuadorSucumbíosRey de los AndesField notes of Pablo Menéndez
EcuadorSucumbíosRio Sabalo campsiteReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosSacha LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosSan Pablo de KantesiyaMHNG 2460.099; collection database
EcuadorSucumbíosSani LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosSanta CeciliaDa Silva et al 1995
EcuadorSucumbíosShushufindiSalguero 2012
EcuadorSucumbíosTapir lodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosTarapoaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosTerritorio Cofán DurenoYánez-Muñoz & Chimbo 2007
EcuadorSucumbíosZábaloCevallos Bustos 2010
EcuadorSucumbíosZancudocochaOrmaza & Bajaña
PeruAmazonasAintamiRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasCaterpizaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasChigkan EntseRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasLa PozaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasMouth of Río SantiagoRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasPuerto GalileaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasRío LagartocochaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasSan Antonio, Río CenepaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasShiringaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasSua, CenepaRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruAmazonasYusa PatagkamuRibeiro-Júnior 2015
PeruLoretoAguas NegrasYánez-Muñóz & Venegas 2008
PeruLoretoLaguna AnaticoPhoto by Mark O'Shea
PeruLoretoZona Reservada GüeppíYánez-Muñóz & Vanegas 2008