Published May 4, 2024. Open access.

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Common Blunt-headed Snake (Imantodes cenchoa)

Reptiles of Ecuador | Serpentes | Colubridae | Imantodes cenchoa

English common names: Common Blunt-headed Snake, Common Blunthead, Chunk-headed Snake.

Spanish common names: Cordoncillo común, dormilona común, culebra liana común.

Recognition: ♂♂ 155.4 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. Snout–vent length=98.5 cm. ♀♀ 150 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. Snout–vent length=95.1 cm..1,2 Imantodes cenchoa is one of the most readily recognizable snakes in the Neotropics. Its distinctive features include an extremely slender body, a broad and truncated head clearly differentiated from the thin neck, and bulging eyes that occupy approximately a quarter of the head’s length.35 The dorsal scales are smooth and the vertebral row is noticeably enlarged. This species differs from I. chocoensis by having a loreal scale.6 From I. lentiferus, it differs by having 17, instead of 15, dorsal scale rows as well as by having larger and darker brown dorsal blotches (Fig. 1).7 Although it may resemble snakes of the genus Leptodeira, it differs from them by having a more compact head with more prominent eyes.7 Males of I. cenchoa have a wider head and longer tail than females.3,4

Figure showing variation among individuals of Imantodes cenchoa

Figure 1: Individuals of Imantodes cenchoa from Ecuador: Canadé Reserve, Esmeraldas province (); Finca Heimatlos, Pastaza province (). j=juvenile.

Natural history: Imantodes cenchoa is a commonly encountered snake that inhabits rainforests in lowland and foothill areas, occurring also in the seasonally dry forest ecosystem of southwestern Ecuador.8,9 This species thrives in well-conserved forests with dense arboreal vegetation as well as in disturbed areas such as clearings, orchards, and coffee and banana plantations.4,1016 Common Blunt-headed Snakes are exclusively nocturnal and mainly arboreal. They are typically seen gliding through, or coiled on, low (0.5–3 m) understory vegetation at night, foraging among palm leaves, branches, and bushes.4,16 Occasionally, they dwell on the canopy 30 meters above the ground17 or at ground level.18,19 Imantodes has several adaptations for the arboreal lifestyle, including the ability to raise more than half of its body in the air, with the help of its prehensile tail and vertebrae with long spines, to reach distant perches or move on very thin branches without breaking them.17 During the day, these snakes sleep in hidden spots within trees, under loose bark, in the axils of big leaves, bromeliads, under ground debris, or inside cavities in trunks.3,18,19 They tend to remain in the same area for relatively extended periods (8–15 days) after feeding.19 Imantodes cenchoa is mildly venomous (harmless to humans) and captures prey using a grab-and-hold strategy aided by constriction until the venom immobilizes it,14 then swallows it head-first.4,1921 The diet consists almost exclusively on lizards of the genus Anolis (including A. fuscoauratus,12 A. maculiventris,16 A. punctatus,7 A. ortonii,12 and A. trachyderma22) but it can feed on other lizards (including Basiliscus,20 Enyalioides,21 and Gonatodes),11 frogs,4,7,12 and eggs of amphibians22,23 and reptiles.3 The species is known to be preyed upon by Erythrolamprus aesculapii24 and Bothrops atrox.25 Mating and fighting behavior among males have been observed in the medium stratum of primary forests.26,27 Females reach sexual maturity at a body length of approximately 620 mm, typically around two years of age.4 Clutch sizes range from 1–8 eggs,4,12 with an incubation period of 63–69 days.3,14 Gravid females and neonates habe been recorded throughout the year, suggesting a continuous reproductive cycle.5,12,13 When threatened, The Common Blunthead remains static, and when handled, may discharge fetid products from the cloacal glands.2 These snakes are considered docile, rarely attempting to bite.3,12

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Conservation: Least Concern Believed to be safe from extinction given current circumstances..28 Imantodes cenchoa is listed in this category due to its wide distribution and presumed large populations, which have not undergone rapid declines. As a snake adapted to disturbed environments, there are no known widespread threats negatively impact its populations.

Distribution: Imantodes cenchoa is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, from southern Mexico to Argentina. In Ecuador, the species is widespread throughout both the Chocoan and Amazonian lowlands as well as the adjacent foothills of the Andes (Fig. 2).

Distribution of Imantodes cenchoa in Ecuador

Figure 2: Distribution of Imantodes cenchoa in Ecuador. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the presence localities included in the map.

Etymology: The name Imantodes comes from the Latin word immanis (=enormous) and the Greek suffix -odes (=abundance),29 probably referring to the large size of the eyes in relation to the head. The specific epithet cenchoa is derived from the Greek word kenchros (=millet),29 a cereal with an elongated stem, possibly referring to the shape of the body.

See it in the wild: The Common Blunt-headed Snake is in fact the most common arboreal snake wherever it occurs. In western Ecuador, it can be seen with almost complete certainly at Canandé, Buenaventura, and Bilsa biological reserves. In the Amazonian side, it is frequently recorded at Yasuní Scientific Station and the Jatún Sacha Biological Reserve. These snakes can easily be spotted by scanning understory vegetation at night.

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Authors: Amanda Quezada,aAffiliation: Khamai Foundation, Quito, Ecuador. Tatiana Molina-Moreno,bAffiliation: Departamento de Biología, Universidad de los Llanos, Villavicencio, Colombia. Andrés F. Aponte-Gutiérrez,cAffiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias de la Orinoquía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Orinoquía, Arauca, Colombia.,dAffiliation: Fundación Biodiversa Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Danna Duque-Torres,eAffiliation: Grupo de Ornitología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Juan Acosta-Ortiz,bAffiliation: Universidad de los Llanos. Villavicencio, Colombia. and Alejandro ArteagaaAffiliation: Khamai Foundation, Quito, Ecuador.

Photographer: Jose VieirafAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,gAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador.

How to cite? Quezada A, Molina-Moreno T, Aponte-Gutiérrez A, Duque-Torres D, Acosta-Ortiz J, Arteaga A (2024) Common Blunt-headed Snake (Imantodes cenchoa). In: Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J (Eds) Reptiles of Ecuador: Life in the middle of the world. Available from: DOI: 10.47051/AURT2841

Literature cited:

  1. Pérez-Santos C, Moreno AG (1988) Ofidios de Colombia. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, 517 pp.
  2. Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Guayasamin JM (2013) The amphibians and reptiles of Mindo. Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, 257 pp.
  3. Myers CW (1982) Blunt-headed Vine Snakes (Imantodes) in Panama, including a new species and other revisionary notes. American Museum Novitates 2738: 1–50.
  4. Savage JM (2002) The amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica, a herpetofauna between two continents, between two seas. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 934 pp.
  5. Zug GR, Hedges SB, Sunkel S (1979) Variation in reproductive parameters of three neotropical snakes, Coniophanes fissidens, Dipsas catesbyi, and Imantodes cenchoa. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 300: 1–20.
  6. Torres-Carvajal O, Yánez-Muñoz MH, Quirola D, Smith E, Almendáriz A (2012) A new species of blunt-headed vine snake (Colubridae, Imantodes) from the Chocó region of Ecuador. Zookeys 244: 91–110. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.244.3950
  7. Duellman WE (2005) Cusco amazónico: the lives of amphibians and reptiles in an Amazonian rainforest. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 433 pp.
  8. Nogueira CC, Argôlo AJS, Arzamendia V, Azevedo JA, Barbo FE, Bérnils RS, Bolochio BE, Borges-Martins M, Brasil-Godinho M, Braz H, Buononato MA, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Colli GR, Costa HC, Franco FL, Giraudo A, Gonzalez RC, Guedes T, Hoogmoed MS, Marques OAV, Montingelli GG, Passos P, Prudente ALC, Rivas GA, Sanchez PM, Serrano FC, Silva NJ, Strüssmann C, Vieira-Alencar JPS, Zaher H, Sawaya RJ, Martins M (2019) Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American Journal of Herpetology 14: 1–274. DOI: 10.2994/SAJH-D-19-00120.1
  9. Cisneros-Heredia DF (2006) Notes on the distribution and natural history of the Bluntheaded vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa, in Ecuador. Herpetological Bulletin 97: 4–7.
  10. dos Santos-Costa MC, Maschio GF, da Costa Prudente AL (2015) Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 8: 69–98.
  11. Cunha OR, do Nascimento FP (1994) Ofídios da Amazônia. As cobras da região leste do Pará. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 9: 1–191.
  12. Martins M, Oliveira ME (1998) Natural history of snakes in forests of the Manaus region, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetological Natural History 6: 78–150.
  13. Duellman WE (1978) The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 65: 1–352.
  14. Solórzano A (2004) Serpientes de Costa Rica. Distribución, taxonomía e historia natural. Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, 792 pp.
  15. Dixon JR, Soini P (1986) The reptiles of the upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, 154 pp.
  16. Field notes, Reptiles of Ecuador book project.
  17. Leenders T (2019) Reptiles of Costa Rica: a field guide. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 625 pp.
  18. França RC, França FGR (2019) Imantodes cenchoa (Blunt-headed Tree Snake): habitat use. Herpetological Review 50: 592–593.
  19. Henderson RW, Nickerson MA (1976) Observations on the behavioral ecology of three species of Imantodes (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 3: 205–210.
  20. González-Acosta C, Erb E, Culebras J (2023) First report of predation of Imantodes cenchoa (Colubridae) on Basiliscus galeritus (Corytophanidae) in a tropical humid forest in Colombia. Revista Latinoamericana de Herpetología, 2023. 6: p. 127-130. DOI: 10.22201/fc.25942158e.2023.2.587
  21. Cruz-García KC, Chauca N, Zapata N (2023) Predation of Enyalioides praestabilis (Hoplocercidae) by Imantodes cenchoa (Colubridae) on San Miguel de Conchay, Morona Santiago province, Ecuador. Revista Latinoamericana de Herpetología 6: 180–183. DOI: 10.22201/fc.25942158e.2023.2.587
  22. Scott NJ, Starret A (1974) An unusual breeding aggregation of frogs, with notes on the ecology of Agalychinis spurrelli (Anura: Hylidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 73: 86–94.
  23. Díaz-García JM, Vásquez-Cruz V, Sandoval-Comte A, Ramos-Luna J, Kelly-Hernández A (2023) Depredación de huevos de la rana de cristal norteña Hyalinobatrachium viridissimum por la culebra-cordelilla chata Imantodes cenchoa en un bosque de niebla de Veracruz, México. Revista Latinoamericana de Herpetología 6: 149–153. DOI: 10.22201/fc.25942158e.2023.3.680
  24. Ramírez-Jaramillo S, González G (2022) Revisión de la dieta de Erythrolamprus aesculapii (Squamata: Colubridae) y un nuevo registro desde Ecuador. Neotropical Biodiversity 8: 73–75. DOI: 10.1080/23766808.2022.2040275
  25. Bisneto PF, Kaefer IL (2019) Reproductive and feeding biology of the Common Lancehead Bothrops atrox (Serpentes, Viperidae) from central and southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Acta Amazonica 49:105–113.
  26. Santos-Costa MV, Prudente ALC (2005) Imantodes cenchoa (Chunk-headed Snake): mating. Herpetological Review 36: 324.
  27. Eversole CB, Powell RL, Crocker AV, Lizarro D (2018) Imantodes cenchoa (Blunt-headed Treesnake): reproduction. Herpetological Review 49: 343.
  28. Arzamendia V, Catenazzi A, Chaves G, Fitzgerald L, Gagliardi G, Giraudo A, Gonzales L, Gutiérrez-Cárdenas P, Köhler G, Nogueira C, Renjifo J, Rivas G, Scrocchi G, Solórzano A, Williams J, Murphy J (2019) Imantodes cenchoa. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Available from: DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T197491A2489923.en
  29. Brown RW (1956) Composition of scientific words. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C., 882 pp.

Appendix 1: Locality data used to create the distribution map of Imantodes cenchoa in Ecuador (Fig. 2). Go to the section on symbols and abbreviations for a list of acronyms used.

ColombiaCaquetáFlorenciaMLS 1131
ColombiaCaquetáLaguna La CulebraUAM-R-0378; VertNet
ColombiaCaquetáLos ÁngelesSINCHI 990; GBIF
ColombiaCaquetáMoreliaRojas-Morales et al. 2013
ColombiaCaquetáParque Natural AndakíSINCHI 989; GBIF
ColombiaCaquetáPueblo Nuevo, 3.8 km N ofSINCHI 951; GBIF
ColombiaCaquetáResguardo Indígena HuitoraUAM-R-0434; GBIF
ColombiaCaquetáRío OrteguazaGBIF
ColombiaCaquetáSan José de FraguaRojas-Morales et al. 2013
ColombiaCaquetáTermales de la QuisayaSINCHI 871; GBIF
ColombiaCaquetáTres EsquinasMLS 1132; GBIF
ColombiaCaquetáVereda PeregrinosUAM-R-0445; VertNet
ColombiaCaquetáVilla María, Río OrteguazaMLS 1131; GBIF
ColombiaCaucaComunidad indígena SierpeGBIF
ColombiaCaucaPiamonteRojas-Morales et al. 2013
ColombiaCaucaVereda Nueva BellavistaIIAP; GBIF
ColombiaMetaVereda ManantialMPUJ 857; GBIF
ColombiaNariñoCandelillasiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaNariñoEstación Mar AgrícolaPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoPunta MulatosGBIF
ColombiaNariñoUniversidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede NariñoPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaPutumayoBajo MansoyaGeopark Colombia SAS
ColombiaPutumayoEstación QuindeMHN-UCa-R-420
ColombiaPutumayoLa HormigaRojas-Morales et al. 2013
ColombiaPutumayoMansoyaGeopark Colombia SAS
ColombiaPutumayoMocoaRojas-Morales et al. 2013
ColombiaPutumayoOritoRojas-Morales et al. 2013
ColombiaPutumayoPuertas del SolMLS 2060; GBIF
ColombiaPutumayoPuerto AsísCárdenas Hincapié & Lozano Bernal 2023
ColombiaPutumayoReserva La Isla EscondidaiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaPutumayoSimón BolivariNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaPutumayoSinaí II BaldíoGeopark Colombia SAS
ColombiaPutumayoVereda CampucanaiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaPutumayoVereda Islas de CartagenaIAvH-CT-39141
ColombiaPutumayoVereda Playa NuevaBorja-Acosta & Galeano Muñoz 2023
ColombiaPutumayoVereda Valle de las PalmerasBorja-Acosta & Galeano Muñoz 2023
EcuadorAzuaySarayungaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarSanta Rosa de Agua ClaraArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCañarFinca HuatacónArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCañarOcañaMZUA.Re.0450; examined
EcuadorCarchiChical, road to San Pablo Torres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorCarchiDestacamento Militar Tobar DonosoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCarchiRío San JuánArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCarchiSendero AwaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCarchiVía LitaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorChimborazoHostería SantValReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorCotopaxiBosque Privado JDLSPellet 2017
EcuadorCotopaxiGuasaganda, 6 km west ofTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorCotopaxiLa EnvidiaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCotopaxiLas JuntasArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCotopaxiLas PampasArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCotopaxiYakusinchiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEl OroBella MaríaTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorEl OroBosque Petrificado PuyangoYánez-Muñoz et al. 2019.
EcuadorEl OroCaliforniaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorEl OroCascadas de ManuelYánez-Muñoz et al. 2019.
EcuadorEl OroMarcabelíSánchez & Yánez-Muñoz 2015
EcuadorEl OroMarcabelí, 6 km NE ofYánez-Muñoz et al. 2014
EcuadorEl OroReserva BuenaventuraYánez-Muñoz et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasBellavistaTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorEsmeraldasBilsaOrtega-Andrade et al. 2010
EcuadorEsmeraldasBosque Protector La PerlaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasCabeceras de BilsaAlmendariz & Carr 2007
EcuadorEsmeraldasCaimitoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasCerro ZapalloiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasCharco VicenteMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasDurangoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasDurango, 4 km N ofTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorEsmeraldasEl PlacerArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasFinca EsperanzaCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorEsmeraldasFundación SIRUAArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasGualpíMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasInésVázquez et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa ChiquitaCollection database
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa MayrongaTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa TablaMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasLaguna de CubeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasLas MareasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasLita–Alto Tambo, km 17Cisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorEsmeraldasLita, 10 km W ofTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote CedeñoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote GualpiReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote QuijanoYanez-Muñoz 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote RoseroArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote SalvadoresArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasLuis Vargas Torres, 4 km SE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasMonte SaínoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasPajonalMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasPartidero-Poza HondaVázquez et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasPichiyacuArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasPlaya de OroArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasRecinto Bilsa, environs ofTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva CanandéYánez-Muñoz et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva FCATiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva Tesoro EscondidoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasRío SantiagoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan LorenzoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan Lorenzo, 3 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasTangarealMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasTunda Loma LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasZapallo GrandeCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorGuayasCerro Blanco Protected ForestTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorGuayasCerro de HayasMZUA.Re.0386; examined
EcuadorGuayasGuayaquilBoulenger 1882
EcuadorGuayasHacienda Balao ChicoUMMZ 123898; VertNet
EcuadorImbaburaCielo Verde 3.5 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorImbaburaLitaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorImbaburaParambaBoulenger 1898
EcuadorLojaLa Hoyada, 2 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos RíosBuena FeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos RíosCentro Científico Río PalenqueArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorLos RíosPueblo ViejoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorLos RíosRío BabaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabí10 de AgostoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabíBosque Seco Lalo LoorHamilton et al. 2005
EcuadorManabíCerro Pata de PájaroArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabíEl Mono, 6 km SE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíMachalillaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabíParque Nacional MachalillaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabíReserva Cerro SecoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíReserva Jama CoaqueArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabíReserva Tito SantosHamilton et a. 2005
EcuadorMorona SantiagoCusuimeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoEl TiinkArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoGualaquizaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoLaguna el EnmascaradoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoLimónArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoLimón, 7 km N ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoMacumaCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorMorona SantiagoMéndezArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorMorona SantiagoMéndez, ca. 7 km S ofUSNM 211000; VertNet
EcuadorMorona SantiagoPaloraiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorMorona SantiagoRío UpanoFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSan Miguel de Conchay Cruz-García et al. 2023
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSucúaFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorMorona SantiagoWuapulaMZUA.Re.0420; examined
EcuadorNapoAhuanoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoAlto NapoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoAnaconda LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorNapoBaezaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoChontapuntaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoCocaMHNG 2413.014; collection database
EcuadorNapoCotundo, 12 km NW ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoEl ChacoMHNG 2309.081; collection database
EcuadorNapoGareno LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoHuaorani LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorNapoJatun Sacha Biological ReserveArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoLa Cruz BlancaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoMisahuallíArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoPano, 16 km SW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoRío HollínArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoRío PucunoUSNM 211005; VertNet
EcuadorNapoRuna HuasiCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorNapoSendero abajo CocodrilosArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoSinchi SachaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoSuchipakari LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorNapoTenaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoVía a Pañacocha CCollection database
EcuadorNapoWild SumacoCamper et al. 2021
EcuadorNapoYachana LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorNapoYachana ReserveArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellana24 de mayo, DayumaRamírez-Jaramillo & González 2022
EcuadorOrellanaÁvila ViejoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaCampo PindoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaCononacoCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorOrellanaCotapinoFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorOrellanaDestacamento CocayaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaEl DescansoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaEl EdénArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaEstación TiputiniCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorOrellanaFlorenciaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaHollín–LoretoCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorOrellanaLaguna TaracoaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaLlunchiFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorOrellanaLoretoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaPompeya Sur, 10 km S ofTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorOrellanaPozo NashiñoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaPozo Suco 1Arteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaReserva Río BigalArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaSan José de PayaminoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaSan Vicente Torres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorOrellanaShiripuno LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaTigüinoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaTiputini Biodiversity StationCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorOrellanaYasuní Scientific StationArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaYuca SurArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorOrellanaYuturi LagooniNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastaza10 de Agosto, 6.7 km NE ofUSNM 211019; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaAlpayacuFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorPastazaArajunoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaArutam FieldstationSMF 90967; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaBamenoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaBataburo LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaBetween Abitagua and MeraFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorPastazaBobonazaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaBufeoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaCabeceras de BobonazaUSNM 211006; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaCachiyacuUSNM 321122; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaCampo K10Torres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorPastazaCampo K4Torres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorPastazaCanelosArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaCanelos, 9 km W ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaChichirotaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaChontoaKU 121336; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaCoca, 140 km S ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaComuna CurarayCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorPastazaComunidad PitacochaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaCopatazaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaCueva de los TayosUMMZ 88901; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaCuraray MedioZSFQ 193; examined
EcuadorPastazaDestacamento Militar ShionaRMNH.RENA.50786; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaFátima, 9 km N PuyoRMNH.RENA.50985; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaFinca de Peter ArcherReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaFinca HeimatlosReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaHemisferios Biodiversity ReserveGBIF
EcuadorPastazaHuella Verde LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaJardín Botánico Las OrquídeasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaKapawi LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaMeraiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaMera, 7 km NE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaMontalvoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaPomonaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaPozo GarzaCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorPastazaPucayacu (Río Pucayacu)USNM 211017; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaPuyoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaRío AnzuArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaRío BobonazaZug et al. 1979
EcuadorPastazaRío CopatazaUSNM 211024; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaRío CorrientesUSNM 211016; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaRío Huiyoyacu, río corrientesArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaRío RutunoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaRío VillanoUSNM 211012; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaSantanaSMF 90968
EcuadorPastazaSarayacuArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaShellCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorPastazaShell-Te ZulayCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorPastazaSumak Kawsay In SituiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaTamandúaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPastazaTeniente Hugo OrtizUSNM 211020; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaTinajas del Rio AnzuiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaTzarentzaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaVillanoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaFinca GloriaRMNH.RENA.50733; GBIF
EcuadorPichinchaHacienda La HesperiaBrouwer 2018
EcuadorPichinchaHacienda Yellow HouseArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaHostería Selva VirgenReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPichinchaMangaloma ReserveiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaMashpi LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPichinchaMindoCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorPichinchaMindo GardenArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaPedro Vicente MaldonadoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaPuerto QuitoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaReserva MaquipucunaCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorPichinchaRío Silanche Bird SanctuaryReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPichinchaRío ToachiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaSan Miguel de los ColoradosUSNM 211003; VertNet
EcuadorPichinchaSanta Rosa de PactoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanta ElenaComuna Loma AltaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanta ElenaEl SuspiroiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanta ElenaReserva Las Balsas JocotocoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasHacienda TinalandiaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasLa BalsareñaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasRío BabaKU 146740; VertNet
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSanto DomingoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSanto Domingo, 5 km W ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosBloque 27Arteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosCabañas Monte TourArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosCampamento Río VerdeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosComunidad Kichwa CuyabenoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosCuyabeno Reserve, Río AguaricoGBIF
EcuadorSucumbíosEl ReventadorArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosEstación PUCE en CuyabenoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosLa BarquillaUTA 65487; GBIF
EcuadorSucumbíosLa Selva LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosLago AgrioArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosLimoncochaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosLumbaquiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosNapo Wildlife CenterReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosPañacochaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosPlayas del CuyabenoTorres-Carvajal et al. 2012
EcuadorSucumbíosPuerto BolívarArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosPuerto LibreDuellman 1978
EcuadorSucumbíosRecinto SansahuariYánez-Muñoz et al.
EcuadorSucumbíosReserva Ecológica Cofán BermejoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosRey de los AndesArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosSacha LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosSan Pablo de KantesiyaCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorSucumbíosSani LodgeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosSanta CeciliaDuellman 1978
EcuadorSucumbíosSanta ElenaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosShushufindiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosShushufindi, 27 km SE ofInaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosTarapoaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSucumbíosVolcán ReventadorReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorTungurahuaAbitaguaFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorTungurahuaMapotoFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeAlto MachinazaAlmendáriz et al. 2014
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeAlto Nangaritza Guayasamin et al. 2011
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeBombuscaroCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeFinca YantzaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorZamora ChinchipePachicutzaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorZamora ChinchipePodocarpusArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeReserva MaycuReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeSanta Clara del VergeliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeShaimeFreile 2010
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeZamoraUMMZ 82878; VertNet
PerúAmazonasChávez ValdiviaUSNM 316611; VertNet
PerúAmazonasHuampamiMVZ 163430; VertNet
PerúAmazonasKagkaUSNM 316612; VertNet
PerúAmazonasKusuMVZ 163284; VertNet
PerúAmazonasLa Poza, on the Rio SantiagoUSNM 566578; VertNet
PerúAmazonasPaagatUSNM 316613; VertNet
PerúAmazonasPuesto de Vigilancia ComainasUSNM 525558; VertNet
PerúAmazonasQuebrada PastasilloMVZ 175325; VertNet
PerúAmazonasQuebrada ShinganatzaAlmendáriz et al. 2014
PerúAmazonasSan Antonio, vicinity ofUSNM 316607; VertNet
PerúAmazonasSua, vicinity ofUSNM 560429; VertNet
PerúLoretoUpper Río ComainasGBIF