Published June 1, 2022. Open access.

Gallery ❯

Western Basilisk (Basiliscus galeritus)

Reptiles of Ecuador | Sauria | Corytophanidae | Basiliscus galeritus

English common names: Western Basilisk, Red-headed Basilisk.

Spanish common names: Basilisco occidental, basilisco de cabeza roja, lagartija Jesucristo, piande (Ecuador); chochora, chora, cocora, opoga, jesusito (Colombia); pasarroyos, lagartija pasaríos, cucurucho (Colombia, Panama).

Recognition: ♂♂ 78.5 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. Snout–vent length=26.2 cm. ♀♀ 63.4 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. Snout–vent length=21.1 cm..1,2 The Western Basilisk (Basiliscus galeritus) is a large-sized mainly brown or green lizard with transverse bands on the body and tail.3,4 It is unmistakable among lizards in western Ecuador by having a semicircular crest on the back of the head, a series of raised and spaced scales along the vertebral line of the body and tail, and toes bearing dilated scaly flaps.47 Basiliscus galeritus could be confused with other Ecuadorian lizards that have a crest, but these have the crest not on the head but behind it. Juveniles of B. galeritus lack a noticeable crest (Fig. 1); thus, they can be confused with lizards of the genus Anolis or juveniles of Enyalioides heterolepis, but neither of those species have fringes on the toes.3,4 Adult males of the Western Basilisk are larger and have a more expanded cephalic crest than females.4,8

Figure showing variation among individuals of Basiliscus galeritus

Figure 1: Individuals of Basiliscus galeritus: Cerro de Hayas, Guayas province, Ecuador (); Kapari Lodge, Pichincha province, Ecuador (); Morromico Lodge, Chocó department, Colombia (). j=juvenile.

Natural history: Basiliscus galeritus is a common diurnal lizard of terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and arboreal habits.9,10 This species occurs primarily along bodies of water (rivers,11,12 streams,9,13 lagoons,9 swamps, and marshes14) in lowland and lower-montane rainforests having none to high levels of human intervention.1316 It also inhabits seasonally dry forests in some inter-Andean valleys,12,17 as well as pastures with scattered trees,2,18 crops (of banana, coffee, and cacao),1720 and rural gardens.2 During the day, between 10:30 am and 5:30 pm when the ambient temperature is 20.1–29.4 °C,21,22 Western Basilisks are active on shrubs, branches, and tree trunks at heights up to 16 m above the ground.1,6,13 They also use large rocks,13 stony or sandy beach substrate,23 fallen trunks, roots,2 floating vegetation,24 rooftops, and even swimming pools.2 Adults use the crest to help regulate their body temperature.21 At night, they sleep primarily on branches (46.15% of the time in a sampled locality) and leaves (38.46%) up to 8 m directly above the water, but also on vines, lianas, rocks, and boulders,1,6,12

“In Greek legend, the basilisk is the king of serpents. According to most versions of the legend, the basilisk was a huge lizard endowed with a crest or crown, poisonous breath and a baleful gaze that could kill. In real life, however, the real basilisk, shares only the crest with its mythical namesake. Undoubtedly, the legend arose before Europeans knew about the living animal, but there is nearly a mythical quality about the real basilisk, a quality that is almost as good as the legend. This animal can walk on water.”

Ivan R Schwab and David J Maggs, researchers at the University of California, 2007.2

Basiliscus galeritus is an omnivorous visually oriented predator.6,25 Its diet includes insects (katydids2), crabs, lizards (Anolis gorgonae26), frogs of the genus Pristimantis,27 fish, seeds, fruits, and leaves.10,11 When disturbed, Basilisks tend to escape quickly by lifting their body and running on their hind legs,4,6 not only on the ground but also across the water surface (hence the name “Jesus Christ lizard”), a remarkable feat made possible by the presence of specialized scaly toe fringes that increase the surface area of the foot pads.3,28 Another anti-predatory strategy of Western Basilisks is to roost on flimsy perches that allow them to detect the approach of a predator by sensing the movement of the perch.1 Juveniles sleep closer to the water since they prefer to escape by running across the water surface whereas large adults tend to run into the forest, climb to a higher perch,1 or plunge into the water and dive to the bottom, remaining submerged for 9–10 minutes.6,29 This strategy is so useful to the lizards that they exhibit fidelity to their roosting site.13 If captured, individuals are capable of delivering strong bites; they are also capable of shedding the tail.2 There are records of caimans (Caiman fuscus24), snakes (Imantodes cenchoa2), and otters (Lontra longicaudis30) preying upon individuals of B. galeritus.

Basiliscus galeritus is an oviparous species. Females lay clutches of 3–15 soft shelled eggs10,31 in nests excavated in soft soil or sand along beaches of rivers and streams.12,13,31 The eggs measure approximately 1.3 x 2.3 cm12 and hatch after an incubation period of about four months.6 These eggs are highly prized as a delicacy by local inhabitants.6

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Conservation: Least Concern Believed to be safe from extinction given current circumstances..32,33 Basiliscus galeritus is included in this category because the species is widely distributed, especially over areas that retain the majority of their original forest cover, including the entire Colombian Pacific Coast as well as major national parks in Ecuador: Awá Ethnic and Forest Reserve, Cotacachi Cayapas Ecological Reserve, and Cayapas Mataje Ecological Reserve. As a result, the species is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for a threatened category.32 Basiliscus galeritus can tolerate high levels of habitat disturbance, even complete deforestation, as long as there are adequate water sources.32 It has also apparently been favored by the creation of dams and other artificial water bodies.6 Unfortunately, the destruction of forests, poaching for the pet trade, and the consumption of the eggs6 and adults34 by local people could pose a threat to the long-term survival of some populations.

Distribution: Basiliscus galeritus is widely distributed throughout the lowlands and adjacent mountain foothills of the Chocó biogeographic region, from eastern Panama, through Colombia, to northwestern Ecuador. The species also occurs throughout the valley regions of the rivers Cauca and Magdalena in Colombia. In Ecuador, B. galeritus has been recorded at elevations between 0 and 2135 m (Fig. 2).

Distribution of Basiliscus galeritus in Ecuador

Figure 2: Distribution of Basiliscus galeritus in Ecuador. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the presence localities included in the map.

Etymology: The generic name Basiliscus, which comes from the Greek word basiliskos (meaning “king”),35 probably refers to these lizard’s peculiar head crest. According to Greek mythology, the basilisk was a creature having the body of a snake and a large crest. The specific epithet galeritus, which comes from the Latin words galerum (meaning “helmet”) and the suffix -itus (meaning “having the nature of”),35 probably also refers to the head crest.6

See it in the wild: Western Basilisks can be observed with almost complete certainty along gallery forests throughout the species’ area of distribution in Ecuador. This reptile is particularly common in Canandé Reserve, Milpe Bird Sanctuary, and along the Río Mindo. Western Basilisk may be observed basking on branches and tree-trunks overhanging rivers during a sunny morning, but they are much more easy to approach at night, as they will be asleep on branches or on rocks along water bodies.

Acknowledgments: Special thanks to Lina Parra for helping compile information used in this account.

Special thanks to Eric Haycraft for symbolically adopting the Western Basilisk and helping bring the Reptiles of Ecuador book project to life.

Click here to adopt a species.

Author: Jose VieiraaAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,bAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador.

Editor: Alejandro ArteagacAffiliation: Khamai Foundation, Quito, Ecuador.

Photographer: Jose VieiraaAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,bAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador.

How to cite? Vieira J (2022) Western Basilisk (Basiliscus galeritus). In: Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J (Eds) Reptiles of Ecuador: Life in the middle of the world. Available from: DOI: 10.47051/SQLT6400

Literature cited:

  1. Hernández-Córdoba ÓD, Agudelo-Valderrama OL, Ospina-Fajardo JP (2012) Variación intraespecifica en el uso de percha nocturna de Basiliscus galeritus (Sauria: Corytophanidae) en Isla Palma, Pacífico Colombiano. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 52: 401–409. DOI: 10.1590/S0031-10492012021300001
  2. Field notes, Reptiles of Ecuador book project.
  3. Maturana HR (1962) A study of the species of the genus Basiliscus. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 128: 1–34.
  4. Dunn ER (1944) Los géneros de anfibios y reptiles de Colombia, II. Reptiles, orden de los saurios. Caldasia 3: 73–110.
  5. Duméril AMC, Bibron G, Duméril AHA (1854) Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 780 pp. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.45973
  6. Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Guayasamin JM (2013) The amphibians and reptiles of Mindo. Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, 257 pp.
  7. Herrera FC (1978) Saurios en la zona de estudios biológicos de Providencia, Anorí, Antioquia. Actualidades Biológicas 7: 37–41.
  8. Taylor GW, Santos JC, Perrault BJ, Morando M, Vásquez Almazán CR, Sites Jr JW (2017) Sexual dimorphism, phenotypic integration, and the evolution of head structure in casque‐headed lizards. Ecology and Evolution 7: 8989–8998. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3356
  9. Vargas-Salinas F, Aponte-Gutiérrez A (2016) Diversidad y recambio de especies de anfibios y reptiles entre coberturas vegetales en una localidad del valle del Magdalena medio, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 17: 117–137. DOI: 10.21068/c2016.v17n02a09
  10. Castro-Herrera F, Valencia-Aguilar A, Villaquirán-Martínez DF (2012) Diversidad de anfibios y reptiles del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona. Universidad del Valle, Cali, 112 pp.
  11. MECN (2010) Serie herpetofauna del Ecuador: El Chocó esmeraldeño. Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, 232 pp.
  12. Almendáriz A, Brito J (2012) Ampliación del rango distribucional de Drymarchon melanurus (Colubridae) y Basiliscus galeritus (Iguanidae-Corytophaninae), hacia los bosques secos interandinos del norte del ecuador. Revista Politécnica 30: 179–183.
  13. Vargas F, Bolaños ME (1999) Anfibios y reptiles presentes en hábitats perturbados de selva lluviosa tropical en el bajo Anchicayá, Pacífico colombiano. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23: 499–511.
  14. Carvajal-Cogollo JE, Castaño-Mora OV, Cárdenas-Arévalo G, Urbina-Cardona JN (2007) Reptiles de áreas asociadas a humedales de la planicie del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Caldasia 29: 427–438.
  15. Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D (2019) Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich online portal, with dynamic checklists and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13: 209–229.
  16. Ríos EE, Hurtado CF, Rengifo JT, Castro-Herrera F (2011) Lagartos en comunidades naturales de dos localidades en la región del Chocó de Colombia. Herpetotropicos 5: 85–92.
  17. Moreno-Arias R, Quintero-Corzo S (2015) Reptiles del valle seco del Río Magdalena (Huila, Colombia). Caldasia 37: 183–195.
  18. Carvajal-Cogollo JE, Urbina-Cardona JN (2008) Patrones de diversidad y composición de reptiles en fragmentos de bosque seco tropical en Córdoba, Colombia. Tropical Conservation Science 1: 397–416. DOI: 10.1177/194008290800100407
  19. Cuadrado Saldarriaga SS (2020) Estructura de la comunidad de herpetofauna diurna en agroecosistemas del Chocó ecuatoriano. BSc thesis, Universidad de Guayaquil, 56 pp.
  20. Field notes of William Duellman.
  21. Rodriguez-Miranda LA, Lozano-Aguilar LE, Altamirano-Benavides M, Méndez De la Cruz FR (2021) Thermal ecophysiology of Basiliscus galeritus (Squamata: Corytophanidae) in two populations at different altitudes: does the crest participate actively in thermoregulation? Journal of Thermal Biology 99: 102980. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2021.102980
  22. Urbina JN, Londoño MC (2003) Distribución de la comunidad de herpetofauna asociada a cuatro áreas con diferente grado de perturbación en la Isla Gorgona, Pacifico colombiano. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 102: 105–113.
  23. Yánez-Muñoz MH, Altamirano M, Oyataga L (2009) Diversidad de la herpetofauna de Tobar Donoso, prov. Carchi, Ecuador. Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, 34 pp.
  24. Castro-Herrera F, Valencia-Aguilar A, Villaquiran D (2013) Evaluación de la población de babillas en los humedales del sur-occidente de la Isla Gorgona, Pacífico colombiano. Herpetotropicos 9: 19–23.
  25. Schwab IR, Maggs DJ (2007) An eye for the land. British Journal of Ophthalmology 91: 855–855.
  26. Online multimedia.
  27. Barrio-Amorós CL (2015) The amphibians and reptiles of Mindo: life in the cloud forest: book review. Herpetological Review 46: 111–113.
  28. Glasheen JW, McMahon TA (1996) A hydrodynamic model of locomotion in the Basilisk Lizard. Nature. Nature 380: 340–342. DOI: 10.1038/380340a0
  29. Zuluaga Isaza JC, Escobar Lasso S, Londoño Quiceno C (2022) When running on water isn’t enough, you can dive: field observation of diving behaviour as antipredator strategy of the Western Basilisk Basiliscus galeritus Duméril 1851. Reptiles & Amphibians 29: 52–54. DOI: 10.17161/randa.v29i1.16245
  30. Arcila Saldarriaga DA (2003) Distribución, uso de microhábitats y dieta de la nutria neotropical Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818) en el cañón del Río Alicante, Antioquia, Colombia. BSc thesis, Medellín, Universidad de Antioquia, 143 pp.
  31. Alison Van Keuren, pers. comm.
  32. Ibáñez R, Jaramillo C, Arredondo JC, Cisneros-Heredia DF (2019) Basiliscus galeritus. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Available from: DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T203045A151731207.en
  33. Reyes-Puig C (2015) Un método integrativo para evaluar el estado de conservación de las especies y su aplicación a los reptiles del Ecuador. MSc thesis, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 73 pp.
  34. Cuesta Ríos EY, Rentería Moreno LE (2012) Importancia etnozoológica de herpetos en bosques de la selva pluvial central del Chocó. Revista Bioetnia 9: 196–202. DOI: 10.51641/bioetnia.v9i2.89
  35. Brown RW (1956) Composition of scientific words. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C., 882 pp.

Appendix 1: Locality data used to create the distribution map of Basiliscus galeritus in Ecuador (Fig. 2). Go to the section on symbols and abbreviations for a list of acronyms used.

ColombiaCaucaEl EstrechoICN 4582
ColombiaCaucaIsla GorgonaiNaturalist
ColombiaCaucaRío GuapiiNaturalist
ColombiaCaucaSan FranciscoIIAP_CCCauca_2018
ColombiaNariñoBosque del AcueductoPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoCORPOICAPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoCuespaCastaño et al. 2004
ColombiaNariñoEl MiraCastaño et al. 2004
ColombiaNariñoEl PalmichalPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoEstación Mar AgrícolaPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoIsla del GalloPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoReserva Natural El PangánOnline multimedia
ColombiaNariñoRío GuaguíOnline multimedia
ColombiaNariñoTangareal del MiraICN 4614
ColombiaNariñoUniversidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede NariñoPinto-Erazo et al. 2020
EcuadorAzuayFlor y SelvaThis work
EcuadorBolívarBalzapambaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarCalumaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarChazo JuanArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarEl CristalDHMECN 12074
EcuadorBolívarMayaguanArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarRío VerdeArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarSan Luis de PambilMHNG 2460.065
EcuadorBolívarSanta Rosa de Agua ClaraArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorBolívarTelimbelaThis work
EcuadorCañarEl ChorroThis work
EcuadorCañarHidroeléctrica OcañaJuan Carlos Sánchez, pers. comm.
EcuadorCañarLa TroncalPhoto by Verónica Urgilés
EcuadorCañarManta RealAlmendariz & Carr 2007
EcuadorCañarVenturaMaturana 1962
EcuadorCarchiChicalThis work
EcuadorCarchiChical, 5 km SE ofThis work
EcuadorCarchiChinambíPhoto by Andreas Kay
EcuadorCarchiLa ConcepcióniNaturalist
EcuadorCarchiMaldonadoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCarchiMaldonadoKU 179412
EcuadorCarchiPeñas BlancasThis work
EcuadorCarchiQuebrada El RosalTorres-Carvajal et al. 2019
EcuadorCarchiReserva DráculaDHMECN 14547
EcuadorCarchiRío PailónDHMECN 14216
EcuadorCarchiRío San JuánArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCarchiSendero AwaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCarchiTobar DonosoSamec & Samec 1988
EcuadorChimborazoBucayMaturana 1962
EcuadorChimborazoNaranjapataCAS 94759
EcuadorChimborazoSan PabloAlmendáriz & Orcés 2004
EcuadorChimborazoValle del ChanchánMaturana 1962
EcuadorCotopaxiPilaló, 20 km W ofKU 141142
EcuadorCotopaxiSan Francisco de Las PampasArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorCotopaxiSigchos–Pucayacu roadUSNM 200724
EcuadorEl OroCascadas de Manuel Garzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroReserva Biológica BuenaventuraYánez-Muñoz et al. 2009
EcuadorEsmeraldasBosque Protector La ChiquitaMHNG 2439.097
EcuadorEsmeraldasBosque Protector La PerlaPhoto by Paul Hamilton
EcuadorEsmeraldasCabeceras de BilsaAlmendariz & Carr 2007
EcuadorEsmeraldasCalle MansaMorales 2002
EcuadorEsmeraldasCanandé Biological ReserveYánez-Muñoz et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasCarondeletMorales 2002
EcuadorEsmeraldasCerro ZapalloiNaturalist
EcuadorEsmeraldasDurangoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasEl AguacateArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasEl PlacerArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasEsmeraldasMaturana 1962
EcuadorEsmeraldasEsmeraldas, 6 mi E ofMCZ 83069
EcuadorEsmeraldasEstero AnchoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasEstero InésVázquez et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasEstero Las TinajasField notes of Néstor Acosta
EcuadorEsmeraldasGualpiThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasHacienda CucarachaThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasItapoa ReserveThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasJevon ForestiNaturalist
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa ConcordiaThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa Lagartera, near mouth of CaoniUIMNH 54333
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote EscobarYanez-Muñoz 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote QuijanoYanez-Muñoz 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote RoseroThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote SalvadoresThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote VentanasYánez-Muñoz 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasMayronga, LagartoYánez-Muñoz 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasPartidero-Poza HondaVázquez et al. 2005
EcuadorEsmeraldasPichiyacuArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasPlayón de San FranciscoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva FCATiNaturalist
EcuadorEsmeraldasRío AchioteThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasRío OnzoleArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasRío San FranciscoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasRío SantiagoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan Javier de CachabíUSNM 200703
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan JoséArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan LorenzoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan Lorenzo–LitaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan MiguelArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasTabucheTorres-Carvajal et al. 2019
EcuadorEsmeraldasTelembíArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorEsmeraldasTiguaPhoto by Rebecca Tarvin
EcuadorEsmeraldasTobar Donoso, 4 km SW ofiNaturalist
EcuadorEsmeraldasTundaloma LodgeThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasVerdecanandéThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasZapallo GrandeMSUM 1409
EcuadorGuayasCerro de HayasThis work
EcuadorGuayasComuna San MiguelPhoto by Luis Oyagata
EcuadorGuayasPuente Río ChimboBoulenger 1898
EcuadorImbaburaApuela, environs ofUSNM 200706
EcuadorImbaburaGolondrinasArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorImbaburaLa PeñaiNaturalist
EcuadorImbaburaLitaUSNM 200708
EcuadorImbaburaLita, 2 km SE ofiNaturalist
EcuadorImbaburaLita, 6 km E ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorImbaburaParambaBoulenger 1898
EcuadorImbaburaRío PalacaraAlmendariz & Brito 2011
EcuadorImbaburaRío San PedroUSNM 200707
EcuadorImbaburaSanta Rosa de PactoiNaturalist
EcuadorImbaburaVía Otavalo–Selva AlegreiNaturalist
EcuadorLos RíosCentro Científico Río PalenqueMiyata 1976
EcuadorLos RíosPuerto de IláUSNM 200722
EcuadorManabíHacienda SiberiaHamilton et al. 2005
EcuadorManabíLa CrespaiNaturalist
EcuadorManabíQuinta MagdalenaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorManabíRío CoaqueMVZ 226111
EcuadorPichinchaAlluriquínRodriguez-Miranda et al. 2021
EcuadorPichinchaArashá ResortiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaBalneario NambilloiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaBosque Protector CambugánYánez-Muñoz et al. 2009
EcuadorPichinchaCascadas El NaranjaliNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaCueva de los TayosiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaEl Chalpi-SaguangalYánez-Muñoz et al. 2009
EcuadorPichinchaEl CintoThis work
EcuadorPichinchaFinca CastilloiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaGanaderos OrensesArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaHacienda La HesperiaBrouwer 2018
EcuadorPichinchaHidroelectrica ManduriacuiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaKapari LodgeThis work
EcuadorPichinchaLa PalmaKU 179414
EcuadorPichinchaMaquipucuna ReserveThis work
EcuadorPichinchaMashpi LodgeYánez-Muñoz et al. 2009
EcuadorPichinchaMashpi town, 1.7 km S ofiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaMilpe Bird SactuaryThis work
EcuadorPichinchaMindoRodriguez-Miranda et al. 2021
EcuadorPichinchaMindo GardeniNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaMindo LagoThis work
EcuadorPichinchaMindo, 1.5 km N ofiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaNear PactoUSNM 200726
EcuadorPichinchaPedro Vicente Maldonado, 10 km W ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaPlaya RicaArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaPuerto QuitoiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaRancho San JorgeiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaReserva Las Tangaras iNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaRío AlambiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaRío BlancoUSNM 200727
EcuadorPichinchaRío MashpiiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaRío SilancheUSNM 200720
EcuadorPichinchaRio Silanche Bird SactuaryThis work
EcuadorPichinchaRío ToachiUSMN 200714
EcuadorPichinchaSaragoza–Río CintoYánez-Muñoz et al. 2009
EcuadorPichinchaTamboquindeYánez-Muñoz et al. 2009
EcuadorPichinchaTandapiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorPichinchaTandapi, 5.8 km W ofKU 152153
EcuadorPichinchaVía La SextaiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaYaku ForestiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaYellow House LodgeThis work
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasCentro de Interpretación OtongachiArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasEl EsfuerzoOnline multimedia
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasLa Concordia, 6 km W ofArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasRío Baba, 19 km S of Santo DomingoUIMNH 91525
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasRío FaisanesArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSanto Domingo de los Colorados, 3 km NE ofUSNM 285821
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSanto Domingo de los Colorados, 9 km N ofKU 299765
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasTinalandia LodgeThis work
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasVilla AiditaiNaturalist