Published December 9, 2020. Updated May 22, 2024. Open access.

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Forest Flame-Snake (Oxyrhopus petolarius)

Reptiles of Ecuador | Serpentes | Colubridae | Oxyrhopus petolarius

English common names: Forest Flame-Snake, Banded Calico Snake, Calico False Coralsnake.

Spanish common names: Falsa coral común, gargantilla falsa, falsa coral panza blanca, falsa coral real.

Recognition: ♂♂ 113 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. ♀♀ 132.7 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail..1 The Forest Flame-Snake (Oxyrhopus petolarius) is the largest snake in the genus Oxyrhopus. Juveniles have alternating black and light (white, pale yellow, or orange) crossbands, whereas in adults the light bands are usually red, although females can become entirely black with age.24 Albinistic individuals have also been reported.5 The dorsal bands do not encircle the body so the belly is immaculate,6 a characteristic that separates this species from true coralsnakes (genus Micrurus).7 Oxyrhopus petolarius can be confused with O. vanidicus, but in this species the black bands are arranged in groups of more than one band.3 Juveniles of O. leucomelas and Siphlophis ayauma have dorsal bands that reach the belly (immaculate belly in O. petolarius)3,8 and juveniles of O. occipitalis have a pale or yellowish snout (black in O. petolarius).9 Entirely black individuals of O. petolarius can be confused with Clelia equatoriana, a snake that has 17 rows of mid-body dorsal scales (19 in O. petolarius)1 and C. clelia, a snake having 8 infralabial scales (10 in O. petolarius).9

Figure showing variation among individuals of Oxyrhopus petolarius

Figure 1: Individuals of Oxyrhopus petolarius from Centro Científico Río Palenque, Los Ríos province (); Milpe Bird Sanctuary, Pichincha province (); FCAT Reserve, Esmeraldas province (); Curaray medio, Pastaza province (); El Genairo, Zamora Chinchipe province (); and Canandé Reserve, Esmeraldas province (), Ecuador. j=juvenile.

Natural history: CommonRecorded weekly in densities above five individuals per locality.. Oxyrhopus petolarius inhabits a variety of ecosystems ranging from savannas and deciduous (dry) forests to evergreen lowlands rainforests (jungles) and even humid montane shrublands. The species occurs in pristine areas as well as in heavily disturbed ones such as pastures, plantations, and human settlements.6,911 Forest Flame-Snakes prefer warm areas.12 They are nocturnal,6,13 crepuscular,14 and terrestrial11,15 to semi-arboreal.1 Individuals forage on the forest floor, on grass, or on vegetation up to 3.5 m above the ground.1 During the day, they hide under trunks9 or in leaf-litter,16 but may as well be active.6 Forest Flame-Snakes are opistoglyphous (having enlarged teeth towards the rear of the maxilla) and mildly venomous,17 which means their venom is toxic to small prey (in captivity, it is lethal to Anolis lizards), but harmless to humans.2,18

Individuals of Oxyrhopus petolarius constrict and ingest small prey whole and alive, but use venom to neutralize larger prey.2,19 They are foraging predators with a generalist diet15 that includes, in roughly the same proportion, both endothermic (“warm blooded”) and ectothermic (“cold-blooded”) prey.15 Their diet includes small mammals15,20 such as bats21 and rodents,2226 birds20,25,27 and their eggs,22,15 lizards (including Anolis scypheus, Cercosaura manicata, Hemidactylus mabouia, and Kentropyx pelviceps),6,15,20 frogs (Leptodactylus sp.),28 tadpoles29 and even other snakes.12,30 Occasionally, individuals die while attempting to ingest large prey.31,32 Forest Flame-Snakes are preyed upon by other species of snakes.18,28

Forest Flame-Snakes are calm, harmless to humans, and rarely attempt to bite when handled.12,14 Their main defense strategy is to flee into the vegetation.16 Individuals can be hosts for ectoparasites.33 Oxyrhopus petolarius has a courtship behavior that can last more than two hours and includes head movements by the male over the female’s body.34 Females lay clutches of 2–15 eggs under ground debris.1,35 These hatch in approximately 3 months36 and the hatchlings measure 23.5–25.8 cm in total length.37

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Conservation: Least Concern Believed to be safe from extinction given current circumstances..38 Oxyrhopus petolarius is listed in this category mainly on the basis of the species’ wide distribution, occurrence in protected areas, presumed stable populations, and adaptability to human-modified environments.38 However, the destruction and fragmentation of forested environments throughout Central and South America can be a threat for the long-term of survival of the species. Individuals of O. petolarius also suffer from traffic mortality39,40 and direct killing. Forest Flame-Snakes are often mistaken with true coralsnakes and therefore killed on sight.18

Distribution: Oxyrhopus petolarius is widely distributed throughout the lowlands and adjacent mountain foothills of Central America and northern South America. The species occurs along the Pacific lowlands from Mexico to southwestern Ecuador; on the Atlantic versant, from Costa Rica to Brazil. It also occurs in the Llanos region of Colombia and Venezuela, and throughout the Amazon basin, extending to the Atlantic Forest as far south as northeastern Argentina.37,41 The species occurs over an estimated ~3,019,754 km2 area41 at elevations between 0 and 2181 m (Fig. 2).

Distribution of Oxyrhopus petolarius in Ecuador

Figure 2: Distribution of Oxyrhopus petolarius in Ecuador. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the presence localities included in the map.

Etymology: The generic name Oxyrhopus, which comes from the Greek words oxys (meaning “quick”) and rhops (meaning “bush”),42 probably refers to the escape behavior of snakes of these genus; that is, fleeing into bushes.43 The specific epithet petolarius is probably derived from the word petola (the brightly colored cloak of the Javanese goddess Petola, who was persecuted and forced to take refuge inside inaccessible forests)44 and the Latin suffix -arius (meaning “pertaining to”).42

See it in the wild: Individuals of Oxyrhopus petolarius can be seen with ~30% certainty in forested areas throughout the species’ area of distribution in Ecuador. Some of the best localities to find Forest Flame-Snakes in the wild in Ecuador are: Yasuní Scientific Station, Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Jatún Sacha Biological Reserve, Canandé Reseve, Centro Científico Río Palenque, Río Silanche Bird Sanctuary, and Buenaventura Reserve. The snakes may be located by scanning the forest floor along forest trails at night.

Acknowledgments: Special thanks to Darwin Núñez, Diego Piñán, Eduardo Zavala, Ítalo Tapia, and Regdy Vera for providing locality data for Oxyrhopus petolarius.

Authors: Amanda QuezadaaAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,bAffiliation: Laboratorio de Herpetología, Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador. and Alejandro ArteagaaAffiliation: Khamai Foundation, Quito, Ecuador.

Photographers: Jose Vieira,aAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,cAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador. Alejandro Arteaga,aAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador. and Sebastián Di DoménicodAffiliation: Keeping Nature, Bogotá, Colombia.

How to cite? Quezada A, Arteaga A (2024) Forest Flame-Snake (Oxyrhopus petolarius). In: Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J (Eds) Reptiles of Ecuador: Life in the middle of the world. Available from: DOI: 10.47051/QLCU2114

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Appendix 1: Locality data used to create the distribution map of Oxyrhopus petolarius in Ecuador (Fig. 2). Go to the section on symbols and abbreviations for a list of acronyms used.

ColombiaCaquetáFlorenciaLynch 2009
ColombiaCaquetáLas VerdesSINCHI-R 971
ColombiaCaquetáReserva La AvispaRuiz-Valderrama et al. 2019
ColombiaCaquetáRío CaquetáMCZ 67032
ColombiaCaquetáSan José del FragüaiNaturalist
ColombiaCaquetáSolanoLynch 2009
ColombiaCaquetáVereda Las VerdesSINCHI-R 872
ColombiaNariñoPindalesLynch 2015
ColombiaPutumayoPutumayoMCZ R-67033
EcuadorCarchiCarretera Pailón–QuinshullOnline multimedia
EcuadorCarchiDestacamento MilitarMECN 6711
EcuadorCarchiMaldonadoCM 94654
EcuadorCarchiTobar DonosoYanez-Muñoz 2009
EcuadorCotopaxiEl Jardín de los SueñosPhoto by Christophe Pellet
EcuadorCotopaxiSan Francisco de las PampasMHNG 2308.084
EcuadorEl OroCascadas de ManuelGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroMarcabelíGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroReserva Biológica BuenaventuraGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroReserva Ecológica ArenillasPhoto by Alex Achig
EcuadorEl OroReserva TituanaThis work
EcuadorEl OroSabayaniNaturalist
EcuadorEl OroSaracayPhoto by Evelyn Hurtado
EcuadorEsmeraldasAngosturaMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasBilsa Biological ReserveThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasCaimitoThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasCentro de Fauna Silvestre James BrownPhoto by Salvador Palacios
EcuadorEsmeraldasCresta San FranciscoMECN 2894
EcuadorEsmeraldasDurangoField notes of Ítalo Tapia
EcuadorEsmeraldasEloy AlfaroGBIF
EcuadorEsmeraldasEstero de LechesField notes of Ítalo Tapia
EcuadorEsmeraldasGalera–CaimitoThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasGualpíThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasHotel El PedregalMECN 5658
EcuadorEsmeraldasLas MareasGBIF
EcuadorEsmeraldasLote RoseroThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasNaranjal de Los ChachisiNaturalist
EcuadorEsmeraldasPlaya de OroField notes of Eduardo Toral
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva CanandéThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva FCATThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva ItapoaMZUTI 3675
EcuadorEsmeraldasRío PalabiUSNM 232983
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan LorenzoSheehy et al. 2014
EcuadorEsmeraldasTundaloma LodgeThis work
EcuadorEsmeraldasVerdecanandéThis work
EcuadorGuayasBalzarUSNM 233047
EcuadorGuayasBosque Protector Cerro BlancoAlmendáriz & Carr 2007
EcuadorGuayasCapeiraPhoto by Eduardo Zavala
EcuadorGuayasCerro de HayasMZUA.RE.0379
EcuadorGuayasEl TriunfoPhoto by Carlos Torres
EcuadorGuayasGuayaquilMCZ R-8389
EcuadorGuayasIsla SantayPhoto by Eduardo Zavala
EcuadorGuayasSan RafaelArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorImbaburaCahuasquíPhoto by Diego Piñán
EcuadorImbaburaLlurimagua, E ofGBIF
EcuadorImbaburaTrail to Manduriacu ReservePhoto by Ross Maynard
EcuadorLojaBosque Petrificado PuyangoGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorLojaChaguarpambaThis work
EcuadorLojaTributary of the Puyango RiverThis work
EcuadorLos RíosBosque Protector Pedro Franco DávilaCruz & Sánchez 2016
EcuadorLos RíosCentro Científico Río PalenqueThis work
EcuadorLos RíosEl DescansoArteaga et al. 2013
EcuadorLos RíosEstero LechugalMZUA.RE.0143
EcuadorLos RíosHacienda Cerro ChicoMCZ 152748
EcuadorLos RíosJaunecheMZUA.RE.0333
EcuadorLos RíosLa ReformaPhoto by Axel Marchelie
EcuadorLos RíosMaculMZUA.RE.0171
EcuadorLos RíosPuerta de IlaUSNM 233045
EcuadorLos RíosQuevedoUSNM 233046
EcuadorManabíAyampeMCZ 151582
EcuadorManabíCerro Pata de PájaroThis work
EcuadorManabíCerro San SebastiánMECN 5978
EcuadorManabíEl GuayacánPhoto by Regdy Vera
EcuadorManabíEloy AlfaroPhoto by Regdy Vera
EcuadorManabíFlavio AlfaroGBIF
EcuadorManabíHostería CocosoloThis work
EcuadorManabíMaicitoMHNG 1368.019
EcuadorManabíMantaPhoto by Ronald Pincay
EcuadorManabíMariano–PedernalesThis work
EcuadorManabíPuerto LópezGBIF
EcuadorManabíReserva Jama-CoaqueLynch et al. 2016
EcuadorManabíReserva Lalo LoorThis work
EcuadorManabíReserva Tito SantosHamilton et al. 2005
EcuadorManabíRío CoaqueKU 218425
EcuadorManabíSan AntonioiNaturalist
EcuadorMorona Santiago6.6 km N LimónThis work
EcuadorMorona SantiagoChiguazaUSNM 232996
EcuadorMorona SantiagoCordillera del CutucúChaparro et al. 2011
EcuadorMorona SantiagoEl TiinkMZUTI 2918
EcuadorMorona SantiagoFinca del Sr. FajardoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorMorona SantiagoGualaquizaMNHN 1906.241
EcuadorMorona SantiagoLimónPhoto by Patricio Estrella
EcuadorMorona SantiagoLogroñoGBIF
EcuadorMorona SantiagoMacasUSNM 65476
EcuadorMorona SantiagoMacumaUSNM 232998
EcuadorMorona SantiagoPlan GrandeGBIF
EcuadorMorona SantiagoPuerto MoronaDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorMorona SantiagoQuebrada NamakuntsPhoto by Alex Achig
EcuadorMorona SantiagoQuebrada Río NapinazaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorMorona SantiagoQuebrada San JoséPhoto by Alex Achig
EcuadorMorona SantiagoReserva SuritiakThis work
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSan Jose de MoronaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSan Juan BoscoiNaturalist
EcuadorMorona SantiagoShimpinNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSiete Iglesias ReservePhoto by Fausto Siavichay
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSucúaFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorMorona SantiagoTaishaValencia et al. 2016
EcuadorMorona SantiagoWuapulaMZUA.RE.0422
EcuadorMorona SantiagoZamora, 60 km NE ofFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorNapo20 km E JondachiNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoAlinahuiNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoArchidonaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoBaezaMCZ R-166529
EcuadorNapoCabeceras del BobonazaUSNM 233015
EcuadorNapoCocaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoCordillera de GalerasNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoEl ChacoPhoto by Diego Piñán
EcuadorNapoEstación Biológica Jatun SachaVigle 2008
EcuadorNapoFinca FischerTCWC 67311
EcuadorNapoGonzalo Días de PinedaiNaturalist
EcuadorNapoHuaorani LodgeThis work
EcuadorNapoLiana LodgeiNaturalist
EcuadorNapoMisahuallíNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoMisahuallí, 4 km S ofGBIF
EcuadorNapoPacto SumacoThis work
EcuadorNapoPiedra FinaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoPungarayacuMECN 3469
EcuadorNapoReserva NarupaiNaturalist
EcuadorNapoWildsumaco LodgeThis work
EcuadorNapoYachana ReserveWhithworth & Beirne 2011
EcuadorNapoZoo el ArcaPhoto by Diego Piñán
EcuadorOrellanaBloque 31Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaBloque TiputiniiNaturalist
EcuadorOrellanaComunidad OasisPhoto by Silvia Aldás
EcuadorOrellanaCPFNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaEdén Amazon LodgeiNaturalist
EcuadorOrellanaEstación Científica Onkone GarePhoto by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaEstación Científica YasuníThis work
EcuadorOrellanaGuiyeroNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaLoretoThis work
EcuadorOrellanaPañacochaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaPlataforma Iro 1Photo by Sebastián Valverde
EcuadorOrellanaPoza 1Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaPozo Iro BNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaPuerto Francisco de OrellanaPhoto by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaReserva Río BigalHamilton et al. 2011
EcuadorOrellanaRío YasuníMaría Jose Quiroz, pers. comm.
EcuadorOrellanaSan FranciscoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaSan José de PayaminoMaynard et al. 2017
EcuadorOrellanaTambocochaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaTaracoaOnline multimedia
EcuadorOrellanaTigüinoUSNM 321134
EcuadorOrellanaTiputini Biodiversity StationCisneros-Heredia 2006
EcuadorOrellanaVía Auca, km 8Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaVía Pompeya Sur–Iro, km 107Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaVía Pompeya Sur–Iro, km 63Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaVía Pompeya Sur–Iro, km 91Photo by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaYarina LodgeThis work
EcuadorPastaza10 km NE PuyoUSNM 233013
EcuadorPastazaAbitagua–MeraFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorPastazaAlrededores de ArajunoOnline multimedia
EcuadorPastazaAlto CurarayUSNM 233020
EcuadorPastazaArajunoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaBalsauraOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaBloque 10 Agip OilNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaCampamento K10Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaCanelosUSNM 233019
EcuadorPastazaCentro FátimaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaChapintzaPeñafiel 2013
EcuadorPastazaChichirotaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaComunidad Santa RosaFreddy Velásquez, pers. comm.
EcuadorPastazaComunidad TarangaroNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaConamboOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaCopatazaPeñafiel 2013
EcuadorPastazaCuraray MedioThis work
EcuadorPastazaFinca Agroecológica OropéndolaiNaturalist
EcuadorPastazaHacienda San FranciscoUSNM 233035
EcuadorPastazaHostería SafariNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaIntersección Cueva de los TayosPeñafiel 2013
EcuadorPastazaJuyuintzaOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaKurintzaOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaLorocachiThis work
EcuadorPastazaMeraKU 121340
EcuadorPastazaMontalvoUSNM 233040
EcuadorPastazaPlataforma CachiyacuProcapcon
EcuadorPastazaPuyoThis work
EcuadorPastazaPuyo, 4 km W ofNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaReserva HeimatlosPhoto by Ferhat Gundogdu
EcuadorPastazaReserva Sumak KawsayPhoto by César Barrio
EcuadorPastazaReserva TamandúaPhoto by Jorge Flores
EcuadorPastazaRío ArajunoUSNM 233004
EcuadorPastazaRío BobonazaPhoto by Andreas Kay
EcuadorPastazaRío OglánUSNM 233031
EcuadorPastazaRío PucayacuNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaRío RutunoUSNM 233017
EcuadorPastazaRío ShilcayacuUSNM 233030
EcuadorPastazaRío TigreUSNM 233018
EcuadorPastazaRío VillanoUSNM 233025
EcuadorPastazaSarayacuNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaSendero al río SarayakilloNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaShellUSNM 233043
EcuadorPastazaShiripuno LodgeiNaturalist
EcuadorPastazaTzarentzaThis work
EcuadorPastazaUNOCAL Base CampUSNM 321134
EcuadorPastazaVillano BNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorPastazaZanja ArajunoThis work
EcuadorPichinchaCalacalí–Nanegalito 1This work
EcuadorPichinchaEco Aldea SalamandraOnline multimedia
EcuadorPichinchaEl Abrazo del ÁrbolMZUTI 1387
EcuadorPichinchaEstación Puerto QuitoValencia & Garzón 2011
EcuadorPichinchaGuayabillas de PactoÍtalo Tapia, pers. comm.
EcuadorPichinchaHostería La RouletteiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaKapari LodgeThis work
EcuadorPichinchaMashpi LodgeiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaMashpi ShungoThis work
EcuadorPichinchaMilpeThis work
EcuadorPichinchaMindo (downtown)This work
EcuadorPichinchaMindo–Puerto QuitoThis work
EcuadorPichinchaNanegalThis work
EcuadorPichinchaNear Pedro Vicente MaldonadoThis work
EcuadorPichinchaPedro Vicente MaldonadoGBIF
EcuadorPichinchaPuerto QuitoPablo Loaiza, pers. comm.
EcuadorPichinchaPuerto Quito–Pedro Vicente Maldonado 1This work
EcuadorPichinchaRancho SuamoxRafael Ferro
EcuadorPichinchaRecinto Monte OlivoiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaReserva La HesperiaBrouwer 2018
EcuadorPichinchaReserva Río SilancheThis work
EcuadorPichinchaReserva Santa LucíaThis work
EcuadorPichinchaSanta MarianitaGBIF
EcuadorPichinchaSarapulloMECN 83
EcuadorPichinchaSelva VirgenThis work
EcuadorPichinchaTandapiThis work
EcuadorPichinchaUn Poco del ChocóiNaturalist
EcuadorPichinchaVía a El AchioteDavid Salazar, pers. comm.
EcuadorPichinchaVia Alóag–Sto. DomingoGBIF
EcuadorPichinchaVia MilpeGBIF
EcuadorSanta ElenaCordillera de Chongón ColonchePhoto by Matteo Resisto
EcuadorSanta ElenaReserva Ecológica Loma AltaLuis Amador, pers. comm.
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los Tsáchilas2 km E Santo DomingoKU 179498
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los Tsáchilas3.6 km N Las PalmasField notes of Luis Coloma
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasBosque Protector La PerlaPlácido Palacios, pers. comm.
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasCentro Científico Río PalenqueNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasFinca La EsperanzaUSNM 233044
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasHacienda EspinosaCAS SUR 13299
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasHacienda La FloridaElicio Tapia, pers. comm.
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasLa ConcordiaGBIF
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasMontanas de IlaUSNM 285682
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasRancho Santa TeresitaUSNM 283533
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasRío BabaUIMHN 92270
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSan Jacinto del BuaiNaturalist
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSanto Domingo de los ColoradosNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasVía Aloag–Sto. Domingo, km 58MECN 585
EcuadorSucumbíosCuyabeno River LodgeNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosDurenoMECN 4108
EcuadorSucumbíosDuvunoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosEl ReventadorNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosEstación CayagamaValencia & Garzón 2011
EcuadorSucumbíosHidroeléctrica Coca Codo SinclairNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosJoya de los SachasNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosLa BarquillaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosLa Selva LodgeThis work
EcuadorSucumbíosLago AgrioNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosLimoncochaMCZ R-96663
EcuadorSucumbíosLumbaquiMCZ R-164676
EcuadorSucumbíosParadise HutsNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosPlayas del CuyabenoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosPuerto de PalosNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosPuerto LibreDuellman 1978
EcuadorSucumbíosReserva Cofán DurenoGBIF
EcuadorSucumbíosReserva Cofán Dureno, E ofYánez-Muñoz & Chimbo 2007
EcuadorSucumbíosRío CanduéNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosRío PutumayoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosRío San Miguel, 6.7 km N ofGBIF
EcuadorSucumbíosRosa FloridaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosSacha LodgeThis work
EcuadorSucumbíosSan Pablo de KantesiyaMECN 225
EcuadorSucumbíosSani LodgeThis work
EcuadorSucumbíosSanta CeciliaDuellman 1978
EcuadorSucumbíosSanta ElenaGBIF
EcuadorSucumbíosSendero CatólicaThis work
EcuadorSucumbíosShushufindiNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorTungurahuaAbitaguaFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorTungurahuaCarretera Río Verde–MeraSheehy et al. 2014
EcuadorTungurahuaEl TopoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorTungurahuaRio NegroMECN 5655
EcuadorTungurahuaRío TopoFugler & Walls 1978
EcuadorTungurahuaRío VerdeSheehy et al. 2014
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeAlto MachinazaAlmendáriz et al. 2014
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeChicañaDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeConcesion ColibríNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeCumbaratzaDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeEl PadmiArmijos 2010
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeEl Salto del IncaDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeIngreso al PN PodocarpusiNaturalist
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeLa ZarzaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeLos EncuentrosDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeParroquia GuadalupeGAD Guadalupe 2015
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeReserva MaycuThis work
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeRío BombuscaroDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeRío MayoThis work
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeSachavacaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeShaimeDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeTunantzaDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeTundaymeBetancourt et al. 2018
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeVia RomerillosDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
EcuadorZamora ChinchipeZamoraDarwin Núñez, pers. comm.
PerúAmazonasCerro de KampankisCatenazzi & Venegas 2016
PerúAmazonasHuampamiMVZ 163424
PerúAmazonasLa Poza, Río SantiagoUSNM 566602
PerúAmazonasPuerto GalileaUSNM 566601
PerúAmazonasRío CaterpizaUSNM 566599
PerúAmazonasRío ComainasGBIF
PerúLoretoAguas NegrasYánez-Muñóz & Vanegas 2008
PerúLoretoZona Reservada Güeppí 1Yánez-Muñóz & Vanegas 2008
PerúLoretoZona Reservada Güeppí 2GBIF
PerúPiuraHuancabambaKU 221726