Published October 7, 2021. Updated February 12, 2024. Open access.

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Amazon Tree-Boa (Corallus hortulana)

Reptiles of Ecuador | Serpentes | Boidae | Corallus hortulana

English common names: Amazon Tree-Boa, Common Tree Boa, Garden Tree Boa.

Spanish common names: Boa amazónica de jardín, boa arborícola amazónica, boa de los jardines (Ecuador); boa arborícola (Bolivia); boa arborícola del amazonas, macabrel (Colombia); boa arborícola amazónica (Peru).

Recognition: ♂♂ 164.3 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. ♀♀ 187.6 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail..1,2 Corallus hortulana differs from other Amazonian snakes by having a triangular-shaped head, heat-sensitive pits on the lips, and a prehensile tail.3,4 This species is polychromatic (Fig. 1). Dorsally, it presents a variable background coloration (yellow, gray, greenish gray, brown, taupe, pink, orange tan, reddish brown, or black) with a series of dorsoventrally arranged ellipsoid spots, which may be dark brown, yellow, or cream.36 The venter may present dark spots on a background color that can be white, cream, gray, brown, or reddish brown.25 In Ecuador, similar snakes that may be found living alongside C. hortulana are C. batesii and Epicrates cenchria. Corallus batesii differs from C. hortulana because this species has a green (orange-red in juveniles)7 dorsum with enamel-white markings.8 Epicrates cenchria has an iridescent orangish dorsum and rounded spots with dark edges.4

Figure showing an adult individual of Corallus hortulana

Figure 1: Individuals of Corallus hortulana: Río Cuyabeno, Sucumbíos province, Ecuador (); Suchipakari Lodge, Napo province, Ecuador (); Palmarí, Amazonas state, Brazil (); Sani Lodge, Sucumbíos province, Ecuador (). ad=adult, j=juvenile.

Natural history: Corallus hortulana is the most commonly seen boa in the Ecuadorian Amazon.9 It is an arboreal snake that inhabits old growth to moderately disturbed rainforests, which may be terra-firme or seasonally flooded.2,4,612 The species also occurs in human-modified habitats and can even enter human dwellings located near the forest.9 Amazon Tree-Boas use vegetation between 0.3 and 25 m above the ground and are particularly abundant along the margins of rivers and streams.4,614 Despite this, individuals can occasionally be found at ground level.4 Corallus hortulana has nocturnal habits, with greater activity during moonless nights and between sunset and midnight, with the majority of this time spent foraging.3,6,13,15 During the day, these boas can be observed coiled with the head hidden among body coils, resting on shaded vegetation, in hollow logs, or in the thatch of roofs.4,9,13,14 In Ecuador, an individual was recorded active during the morning (10:00 am) eating a prey,16 and in Brazil one individual was observed at 2:00 pm basking in the sun.17 Also, in Brazil two individuals were observed mating during the day.14

Corallus hortulana uses active foraging as well as sit-and-wait strategies to capture prey, though the latter approach seems to be more common in adults.4,15,18 This snake is euryphagic, which means it consumes a broad array of prey items. Its diet is composed of anurans (mostly treefrogs),19 lizards (anoles, basilisks,4 Iguana iguana, tropic lizards, and whiptails such as Ameiva ameiva),19 birds, and mammals (marsupials, bats, primates, porcupines, and rodents).4,1520 Likewise, it has been suggested that this snake occasionally consumes fish.21 Ontogenetic changes in diet have been documented for the species, in which juveniles and sub-adults feed on anurans, lizards, birds, and mammals, while adults consume only birds and mammals.18,19,22 There are records of crocodilians (Melanosuchus niger and Paleosuchus trigonatus),15 hawks,9 and owls23 preying upon Amazon Tree-Boas. When threatened, individuals usually make an S-coil and strike.4,17 When manipulated, they can adopt a “protective ball posture,” as well as contract and rotate the body, regurgitate prey, and expel cloacal discharges.3,4,12,15

The reproductive season of Corallus hortulana can vary between locations. There are records of mating in May (in captivity),24 June,14 July,25 and September.14,26 Birth events having been reported from January to June, and in November.27,28 During copulation, the male entangles about 30% of its body around the female and performs movements with its head, including rubbing the chin against the female’s neck and head.26 In captivity, two males copulated for ~37 minutes with a female, without engaging in combat.24 After a gestation period of 6–7 months, females “give birth” (the eggs hatch within the mother) to 2–29 young that measure 28.2–64.4 cm in total length.24,2729 After birth, females may eat some of their young.29 Under human care, individuals can live up to 15 years.30

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Conservation: Least Concern Believed to be safe from extinction given current circumstances..3133 Corallus hortulana is listed in this category because it is widely distributed, occurs in numerous protected areas, has a relatively large and stable populations, and is facing no major immediate extinction threats.31 However, this species can be particularly susceptible to large-scale deforestation, since it requires arboreal vegetation to survive.31 In addition, wild individuals of C. hortulana are marketed as pets, which is why the species is included in Appendix II of CITES.31,34,35

Distribution: Corallus hortulana is native to an area of approximately 207,837 km2 throughout the Amazon basin in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador (Fig. 2), French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.36

Distribution of Corallus hortulana in Ecuador

Figure 2: Distribution of Corallus hortulana in Ecuador. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the presence localities included in the map.

Etymology: The generic name Corallus comes from the old French word coral, which was the name given to dangerous savage and barbaric peoples in ancient times.37,38 This term refers to the fierce and perfidious appearance of the species of the genus, among which the anterior teeth of the maxilla and mandible stand out, which are longer than the posterior teeth.38 The specific epithet hortulana is a Latin word meaning “garden”.37 It refers to the dorsal coloration, reminiscent of a flowerbed.38

See it in the wild: Amazon Tree-Boas can be located at a rate of about once every few nights in forest areas throughout their area of distribution in Ecuador. The localities having the greatest number of observations in Ecuador are Río Cuyabeno, Napo Wildlife Center, Sani Lodge, and Yasuní Scientific Station.

Special thanks to Chantelle Derez for symbolically adopting the Amazon Tree-Boa and helping bring the Reptiles of Ecuador book project to life.

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Authors: Juan Acosta-Ortiz,aAffiliation: Universidad de los Llanos. Villavicencio, Colombia. Andrés F. Aponte-Gutiérrez,bAffiliation: Grupo de Biodiversidad y Recursos Genéticos, Instituto de Genética, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.,cAffiliation: Fundación Biodiversa Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. and Leonardo Niño-CárdenasdAffiliation: Laboratorio de Anfibios, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

Editor: Alejandro ArteagaeAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.

Photographers: Jose VieiraeAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,fAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador. and Sebastián Di DoménicogAffiliation: Keeping Nature, Bogotá, Colombia.

How to cite? Acosta-Ortiz J, Aponte-Gutiérrez A, Niño-Cárdenas L (2024) Amazon Tree-Boa (Corallus hortulana). In: Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J (Eds) Reptiles of Ecuador: Life in the middle of the world. Available from: DOI: 10.47051/PANR5535

Literature cited:

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  2. Dixon JR, Soini P (1986) The reptiles of the upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, 154 pp.
  3. de Fraga R, Lima AP, da Costa Prudente AL, Magnusson WE (2013) Guia de cobras da região de Manaus - Amazônia Central. Editopa Inpa, Manaus, 303 pp.
  4. Martins M, Oliveira ME (1998) Natural history of snakes in forests of the Manaus region, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetological Natural History 6: 78–150.
  5. Henderson RW (1997) A taxonomic review of the Corallus hortulanus complex of neotropical tree boas. Caribbean Journal of Science 33: 198–221.
  6. Duellman WE (2005) Cusco amazónico: the lives of amphibians and reptiles in an Amazonian rainforest. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 433 pp.
  7. Duellman WE (1978) The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 65: 1–352.
  8. Henderson RW, Passos P, Feitosa D (2009) Geographic variation in the Emerald Treeboa, Corallus caninus (Squamata: Boidae). Copeia 3: 572–582. DOI: 10.1643/CH-08-190
  9. Field notes, Reptiles of Ecuador book project.
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  12. dos Santos-Costa MC, Maschio GF, da Costa Prudente AL (2015) Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 8: 69–98.
  13. da Costa Silva P, Henderson RW (2010) Observations on habitat, activity, foraging and diet in the Amazon Treeboa, Corallus hortulanus, on Batatas Island, Parnaiba Delta Piauí, Brazil. Reptiles & Amphibians: Conservation and Natural History 17: 219–221.
  14. da Costa Silva P, Henderson RW (2014) Natural history observations of Amazon Treeboas (Corallus hortulanus) on three islands in the Parnaíba Delta, Brazil. Reptiles & Amphibians: Conservation and Natural History 21: 86–92.
  15. Henderson RW (2002) Neotropical treeboas: natural history of the Corallus hortulanus complex. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, 197 pp.
  16. Yánez-Muñoz MH, Pozo-Zamora GM, Sornoza-Molina F, Brito J (2017) Dos nuevos registros de vertebrados en la dieta de la boa de jardines Corallus hortulanus (Squamata: Boidae) en el noroeste de la Amazonía. Cuadernos de Herpetología 31: 41–47. DOI: 10.31017/9732
  17. Marques R, Mebert K, Fonseca E, Rödder D, Solé M, Tinôco MS (2016) Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil. ZooKeys 611: 93–142. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.611.9529
  18. Henderson RW (1993) On the diets of some arboreal boids. Herpetological Natural History 1: 91–96.
  19. Pizzatto L, Marques OAV, Facure K (2009) Food habits of Brazilian boid snakes: overview and new data, with special reference to Corallus hortulanus. Amphibia-Reptilia 30: 533–544. DOI: 10.1163/156853809789647121
  20. Ribeiro-Júnior MA, Ferrari SF, Ferreira Lima JR, da Silva CR, Dias Lima J (2016) Predation of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) by an Amazon Tree Boa (Corallus hortulanus): even small boids may be a potential threat to small-bodied platyrrhines. Primates 57: 317–322. DOI: 10.1007/s10329-016-0545-z
  21. Chippaux JP (1986) Les serpents de la Guyane Française. Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Paris, 165 pp.
  22. Henderson RW, Pauers MJ, Colston TJ (2013) On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 109: 466–475. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12052
  23. da Costa Silva P, Henderson RW (2013) Barn Owl (Tyto alba) predation on Corallus hortulanus (Squamata, Boidae). Herpetology Notes 6: 35.
  24. Viana PF (2017) Corallus hortulanus (Amazon Tree Boa): neonate size and timing of reproduction in captivity. Herpetological Review 48: 87.
  25. Bartecki U, Heymann EW (1987) Field observation of snakemobbing in a group of Saddle-back Tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons. Folia Primatologia 48: 199–202.
  26. da Costa Silva P, Henderson RW (2014) Mating behavior of Amazon Treeboas, Corallus hortulanus (Squamata: Boidae), on Batatas Island, Piauí, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 7: 335–336.
  27. Pizzatto L, Marques OAV (2007) Reproductive ecology of Boinae snakes with emphasis on Brazilian species and a comparison to pythons. South American Journal of Herpetology 2: 107–122. DOI: 10.2994/1808-9798(2007)2[107:REOBSW]2.0.CO;2
  28. Bernarde PS, Machado RA (2010) Corallus hortulanus (Amazon Tree Boa): timing of reproduction. Herpetological Review 41: 89.
  29. Starace F (1998) Serpents et amphisbènes de Guyane Française. Ibis Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, 450 pp.
  30. Bowler JK (1975) Longevity of reptiles and amphibians in North American collections as of 1 November, 1975. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circular 6: 1–32.
  31. Calderón M, Ortega A, Nogueira C, Gagliardi G, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Hoogmoed M, Schargel W, Rivas G (2016) Corallus hortulanus. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T203210A2762194.en
  32. Carrillo E, Aldás A, Altamirano M, Ayala F, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Endara A, Márquez C, Morales M, Nogales F, Salvador P, Torres ML, Valencia J, Villamarín F, Yánez-Muñoz M, Zárate P (2005) Lista roja de los reptiles del Ecuador. Fundación Novum Millenium, Quito, 46 pp.
  33. Reyes-Puig C (2015) Un método integrativo para evaluar el estado de conservación de las especies y su aplicación a los reptiles del Ecuador. MSc thesis, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 73 pp.
  34. Reynolds RG, Henderson RW (2018) Boas of the World (Superfamily Booidae): a checklist with systematic, taxonomic, and conservation assessments. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 162: 1–58. DOI: 10.3099/MCZ48.1
  35. UNEP-WCMC (2014) Review of species selected on the basis of the analysis of 2014 CITES export quotas. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, 66 pp.
  36. Nogueira CC, Argôlo AJS, Arzamendia V, Azevedo JA, Barbo FE, Bérnils RS, Bolochio BE, Borges-Martins M, Brasil-Godinho M, Braz H, Buononato MA, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Colli GR, Costa HC, Franco FL, Giraudo A, Gonzalez RC, Guedes T, Hoogmoed MS, Marques OAV, Montingelli GG, Passos P, Prudente ALC, Rivas GA, Sanchez PM, Serrano FC, Silva NJ, Strüssmann C, Vieira-Alencar JPS, Zaher H, Sawaya RJ, Martins M (2019) Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American Journal of Herpetology 14: 1–274. DOI: 10.2994/SAJH-D-19-00120.1
  37. Brown RW (1956) Composition of scientific words. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C., 882 pp.
  38. Daudin FM (1803) Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des reptiles. De l’Imprimerie de F. Dufart, Paris, 365 pp.

Appendix 1: Locality data used to create the distribution map of Corallus hortulana in Ecuador (Fig. 2). Go to the section on symbols and abbreviations for a list of acronyms used.

ColombiaCaquetáBelén de los Andaquíes, 3 km NW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaPutumayoPuerto AsísiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorMorona SantiagoCusuimeOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorMorona SantiagoMiazalNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorMorona SantiagoNayumbimeNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorMorona SantiagoRío CusuimeHenderson et al. 2009
EcuadorMorona SantiagoSantiago de TiwintzaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorNapoGareno LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoHuaorani LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorNapoJatun Sacha Biological StationiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoRío PayaminoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorNapoSinchi SachaPhoto by Ernesto Arbeláez
EcuadorNapoSuchipakari LodgeThis work; Fig. 1
EcuadorNapoYachana ReserveWhitworth & Beirne 2011
EcuadorOrellanaCampo NPFPhoto by Paulina Romero
EcuadorOrellanaCampo Yuturi, 7 km NW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaCocaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaCominudad Shuar Nunkui y KunkutYanez-Muñoz et al. 2017
EcuadorOrellanaCononacoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaDícaro, 24 km downstream from, on Río YasuníMaría José Quiroz, pers. comm.
EcuadorOrellanaECY–Tiputini 1Photo by Francisco Sornoza
EcuadorOrellanaECY, 2 km SE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaECY, 8 km NW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaEl Edén Amazon LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaInés ArangoHenderson 1997
EcuadorOrellanaIshpingo Pakcha, 5 km NE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaLoretoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaLos LaurelesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaÑoneno (Ñuneno)Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaNPF, 5 km W ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaNuevo RocafuerteNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaNWC, senderosiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaRío AñanguiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaRío Yasuní, near lake JatuncochaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorOrellanaSan José de PayaminoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaShiripuno LodgePhoto by Fernando Vaca
EcuadorOrellanaTBS, 70 downstream fromNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorOrellanaTiputini Biodiversity StationiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaTres de NoviembreHenderson 1997
EcuadorOrellanaVia Pompeya South–Iro, km 77 Photo by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaVía Pompeya Sur–Iro, Km 90Photo by Morley Read
EcuadorOrellanaYarina Eco LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorOrellanaYasuní Scientific StationYanez-Muñoz et al. 2017
EcuadorPastazaAlto CurarayHenderson 1997
EcuadorPastazaArajuno, 7 km NE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPastazaBalsauraOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaCampo VillanoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaComunidad Puka YakuFreddy Velásquez, pers. comm.
EcuadorPastazaCuraray MedioReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPastazaJuyuintzaOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaKurintzaOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaLorocachiOnline multimedia
EcuadorPastazaMontalvoHenderson 1997
EcuadorPastazaPavacachiUSNM 204091; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaPindoyacuOrtega-Andrade 2010
EcuadorPastazaRío ChambiraHenderson 1997
EcuadorPastazaRío RutunoUSNM 204093; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaRío Tigre USNM 204092; VertNet
EcuadorPastazaSarayacuHenderson 1997
EcuadorPastazaVillano, 7 km NE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosAdhán PayahüajeNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosAguas Negras LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosBatallón TungurahuaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosCaiman LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosCasa Payaguaje, 3 km NW ofNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosCentinelaOMNH 36516.0; VertNet
EcuadorSucumbíosCofán Bermejo Ecological ReserveYanez-Muñoz et al. 2017
EcuadorSucumbíosComunidad Sani IslaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosComunidad Zábalo, 5.6 km E ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosCuyabeno River LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosDurenoNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosDureno, 10 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosGarzacochaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosHeron Lake, 1.2 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosLa Selva LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosLago AgrioiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosLaguna GrandeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosLaguna Grande, 1.3 km S ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosLimoncocha Biological ReserveHenderson 1997
EcuadorSucumbíosLimoncocha, 2 km NW ofNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosLoracachiReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosNapo Wildlife CenterReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosNicky Amazon LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosPañacochaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosParque Recreativo Lago AgrioiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosPiranha EcolodgeOnline multimedia
EcuadorSucumbíosPlayas del CuyabenoUIMNH 61194; VertNet
EcuadorSucumbíosProvidencia, 2.5 km NE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosReserva Cuyabeno, near Ecuador-Peru borderiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Aguarico Nogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Aguarico, near mouth of Río PacuyacuiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío CuyabenoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Cuyabeno, near Amazon Dolphin LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Cuyabeno, near Hot Spots lodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Cuyabeno, near Piranha EcolodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Cuyabeno, nearby Bamboo LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío GüeppiYanez-Muñoz et al. 2017
EcuadorSucumbíosRío ZábaloiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosRío Zábalo campReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSucumbíosSacha LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosSani LodgeThis work; Fig. 1
EcuadorSucumbíosSanta CeciliaNogueira et al. 2019
EcuadorSucumbíosSector Tarsipao IIYanez-Muñoz et al. 2017
EcuadorSucumbíosShushufindi, 4 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSucumbíosTapir lodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
PeruAmazonasEl CenepaUSNM 316565; VertNet
PeruAmazonasRío SantiagoUSNM 566706; VertNet
PeruLoretoPastazaHenderson 1997
PeruLoretoPuerto CaveroiNaturalist; photo examined
PeruLoretoRío Lagartococha USNM 521053; VertNet
PeruLoretoTeniente Manuel ClaveroHenderson 1997