Published February 10, 2024. Open access.

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Central American Boa (Boa imperator)

Reptiles of Ecuador | Serpentes | Boidae | Boa imperator

English common names: Central American Boa, Black-tailed Boa, Northern Common Boa, Emperor Boa.

Spanish common names: Matacaballo costera (Ecuador); Petacona (Colombia).

Recognition: ♂♂ 240 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail. ♀♀ 300 cmMaximum distance from the snout to the tip of the tail..1,2 Boa imperator can be identified from other boas by having small scales on the snout, a vertically elliptical pupil, no heat-sensitive pits on the lips, and presence of pelvic spurs.35 The background dorsal coloration is light brown with a series of dark brown markings forming a chain pattern. These are reddish-brown and black on the tail (Fig. 1).6 The head has three dark stripes from the snout to the nape, a dorsal one extending to the neck and one on each side of the head.3,4 This species differs from B. constrictor by having dark-brown, rather than brick red, tail blotches,4 and a greater number of dorsal blotches (22–30 vs 14–22).7

Figure showing variation among individuals of Boa imperator

Figure 1: Individuals of Boa imperator: Morromico Reserve, Chocó department, Colombia (); Reserva Las Balsas, Santa Elena province, Ecuador (); Loja province, Ecuador (). j=juvenile.

Natural history: Boa imperator is a heavy bodied primarily terrestrial snake, with juveniles being more arboreal than adults.4 The species occurs in a variety of habitats, ranging from pristine rainforests to mangroves and xeric shrublands.3,5 It is also frequently encountered in plantations and peri-urban areas.1,3 Central American Boas have nocturnal habits and forage primarily on the forest floor, but may also utilize arboreal perches up to 20 m above the ground.2,8 During the day, they usually remain coiled, resting at ground level9 or on branches, pillars of buildings,2 the thatch of roofs,2 or in tree holes and mammals burrows.2,3 They can also be seen active during daylight, moving on the forest floor, crossing trails and roads,2 or feeding.10 They utilize both active foraging and ambush strategies to capture prey. Seized prey is wrapped by body coils and constricted until suffocation.4 Prey items include lizards (such as Iguana iguana2 and Medopheos edracanthus11,12), birds,2,13,14 and mammals such as rodents,10 opossums, agoutis, coatis, ocelot, foxes, tree porcupines, young deer, monkeys, and bats.3,5,7,15 Bats are ambushed on trees, at the entrance of caves, or in abandoned houses.2,3,7,16 Domestic animals such as dogs and cats are frequently consumed.5 When threatened, these boas make an S-coil and may produce a long, loud hiss.2 There are recoded instances of predation on members of this species, including by snakes (Drymarchon melanurus7,17) and crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus).1 Breeding in B. imperator tends to coincide with the dry season,1,5 with copulations consisting of as many as three males tangled around a single female.18 During courtship, the males use the pelvic spurs, which are usually larger than those of females. After a gestation period of 4–5 months, females “give birth” (the eggs hatch within the mother) to 12–77 (usually around 25) young.3,19,20 This species is capable of facultative parthenogenesis, meaning embryos can develop from unfertilized eggs.21 In captivity, individuals can live up to 29 years.7

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Conservation: Least Concern Believed to be safe from extinction given current circumstances..22 Boa imperator is listed in this category because the species has large populations and a wide, increasing distribution that includes numerous protected areas.5,22 Furthermore, the species is invasive in some parts of the United States and Mexico.5 However, anecdotal information suggest that Ecuadorian populations are being decimated.2 Wild boas suffer from intense traffic-related mortality and human persecution. Local residents capture these animals and keep them as pets or kill them to consume their skin, meat, and fat. The fat bodies of B. imperator are priced for their “medicinal” properties in Esmeraldas23 and Loja provinces.2

Distribution: Boa constrictor is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, from Mexico to Ecuador (Fig. 2) and northwestern Peru. The species occurs naturally in many islands off the coast of Central America, but has been introduced into Cozumel Island (México), St. Croix, and Florida (United States).

Distribution of Boa imperator in Ecuador

Figure 2: Distribution of Boa imperator in Ecuador. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the presence localities included in the map.

Etymology: The generic name Boa is a Latin word meaning “oxen-killer.”24 The specific epithet imperator is a Latin word meaning “commander in chief.”25

See it in the wild: Central American Boas are commonly kept as pets throughout western Ecuador, but they are rarely seen in the wild. Only in seasonally dry forest areas they appear to be more abundant. The localities having the greatest number of recent observations are Machalilla National Park and Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco.

Special thanks to Mariah Healey and Paul Aherne-Conroy for symbolically adopting the Central American Boa and helping bring the Reptiles of Ecuador book project to life.

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Authors: Danna Duque-Torres,aAffiliation: Grupo de Ornitología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Andrés F. Aponte-Gutiérrez,bAffiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias de la Orinoquía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Orinoquía, Arauca, Colombia.,cAffiliation: Fundación Biodiversa Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Tatiana Molina-Moreno,dAffiliation: Departamento de Biología, Universidad de los Llanos, Villavicencio, Colombia. and Alejandro ArteagaeAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.

Photographer: Jose VieirafAffiliation: Tropical Herping (TH), Quito, Ecuador.,gAffiliation: ExSitu, Quito, Ecuador.

How to cite? Duque-Torres D, Aponte-Gutiérrez A, Molina-Moreno T, Arteaga A (2024) Central American Boa (Boa imperator). In: Arteaga A, Bustamante L, Vieira J (Eds) Reptiles of Ecuador: Life in the middle of the world. Available from: DOI: 10.47051/DVNA9462

Literature cited:

  1. Savage JM (2002) The amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica, a herpetofauna between two continents, between two seas. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 934 pp.
  2. Field notes, Reptiles of Ecuador book project.
  3. Heimes P (2016) Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp.
  4. O’Shea M (2007) Boas and pythons of the world. New Holland Publishers, London, 160 pp.
  5. Krysko KL (2017) Boa imperator (Central American Boa). CABI Compendium. Available from: DOI: 10.1079/cabicompendium.112730
  6. Pérez-Santos C, Moreno AG (1988) Ofidios de Colombia. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, 517 pp.
  7. Reed RN, Rodda GH (2009) Giant constrictors: biological and management profiles and an establishment risk assessment for nine large species of pythons, anacondas, and the boa constrictor. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009–1202, 302 pp.
  8. Lotzkat S (2014) Diversity, taxonomy, and biogeography of the reptiles inhabiting the highlands of the Cordillera Central (Serranía de Talamanca and Serranía de Tabasará) in western Panama. PhD thesis, Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main, 931 pp.
  9. Photo by Mauricio Sepulveda.
  10. Cid-Mora O, Vasquez-Cruz V (2022) Boa imperator (Central American Boa Constrictor): diet. Herpetological Review 53: 334–335.
  11. Brennan R (2010) Un estudio ecológico de las lagartijas del valle seco de Buenavista y de los valles húmedos de La Josefina y Salango. Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection, Vermont, 828 pp.
  12. Valencia JH, Garzón-Tello K (2018) Boa constrictor imperator (Boa Constrictor): diet. Herpetological Review 49: 333–334.
  13. Photo by Rafael Ferro.
  14. Herrera-Martínez CG, Cortés-Suárez JE, Zamora-Roda AA (2022) Boa imperator (Central American Boa): diet and mortality. Herpetological Review 53: 691–692.
  15. Pérez-Alvarado CJ, Lara-Hernández FA, Vásquez-Cruz V, Peña-Serrano J (2020) Contribution to the knowledge of the natural diet of the mazacoatl snake (Boa imperator daudin, 1803) in Veracruz, México. Revista Latinoamericana de Herpetología 2: 91–93.
  16. Photo by Brianna Furch.
  17. Regdy Vera, pers. comm.
  18. Schuett GW, Solórzano A, Porras LW (2019) Boa imperator (Central American Boa Constrictor). Herpetological Review 50: 383–385.
  19. Fitch H (1970) Reproductive cycles in lizards and snakes. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 247 pp.
  20. Personal observation by Schan Art.
  21. Lara-Resendiz RA, Larraín-Barros BC, Díaz de la Vega-Pérez AH, Centenero-Alcalá E (2013) Boa constrictor (Boa Constrictor): reproduction/facultative parthenogenesis. Herpetological Review 44: 151–152.
  22. Montgomery CE, da Cunha O (2018) Boa imperator. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Available from: DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T203879A2771951.en
  23. MECN (2010) Serie herpetofauna del Ecuador: El Chocó esmeraldeño. Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, 232 pp.
  24. Frétey T (2019) Capitalised epithets in the works of Linnaeus (1758‒1767): findings and consequences in herpetology. Bionomina 16: 22–45. DOI: 10.11646/bionomina.16.1.2
  25. Brown RW (1956) Composition of scientific words. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C., 882 pp.

Appendix 1: Locality data used to create the distribution map of Boa imperator in Ecuador (Fig. 2). Go to the section on symbols and abbreviations for a list of acronyms used.

ColombiaCaucaAeropuerto De GuapiiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaCaucaIsla GorgonaBetancourt et al, 2023
ColombiaCaucaIsla GorgonillaiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaCaucaResguardo Indígena Calle SantaBetancourt et al 2020
ColombiaCaucaTimbiquíiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaNariñoDirección General Marítima (DIMAR)Pinto-Erazo et al. 2020
ColombiaNariñoEl CharcoiNaturalist; photo examined
ColombiaNariñoFrancisco PizarroiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorCañarLas PavasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorCotopaxiBosque JDLSPhoto by Christophe Pellet
EcuadorCotopaxiRecinto Estero HondoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorCotopaxiYakusinchiPhoto by Jane Sloan
EcuadorEl OroAeropuerto de Santa RosaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroArenillasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroCarcabónLoaiza-Lange 2023
EcuadorEl OroEl GuaboiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroIsla San GregorioGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroLa CucaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroLa PuntillaGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroLas HuacasVásquez Ávila 2023
EcuadorEl OroMachalaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroPiedrasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroPiñasInternet
EcuadorEl OroRepresa TahuínGarzón-Santomaro et al. 2019
EcuadorEl OroRío ChaguanaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEl OroSanta RosaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasAngosturaMorales 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasAtacamesMHNG-2528.065; collection database
EcuadorEsmeraldasBosque Protector La PerlaPhoto by Plácido Palacios
EcuadorEsmeraldasCanandé Biological ReserveiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasCentro de Fauna Silvestre James BrownPhoto by Salvador Palacios
EcuadorEsmeraldasChucapleiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasEsmeraldasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasEsmeraldas–QuinindéReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorEsmeraldasEstero PoteMorales-Mite 2004
EcuadorEsmeraldasFCAT ReserveiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasGaleraiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasGualpiReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorEsmeraldasHacienda ErazoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa BocaMHNG-2306.015; collection database
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa Concordia–QuinindeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa PierinaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasLa Unión, 3 km S ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasMajagualiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasPalmeras de los AndesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasPunta PorteteTorres-Carvajal et al. 2019
EcuadorEsmeraldasQuingüeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasRancho San FranciscoGuerra-Correa 2020
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva ItapoaPhoto by Rául Nieto
EcuadorEsmeraldasReserva Tesoro EscondidoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasRicaurte, 3 km SW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasSameMHNG-2306.016; collection database
EcuadorEsmeraldasSan JavierAMNH 13543; examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasTerminal Terrestre de EsmeraldasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasTonsupaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasTundaloma LodgeReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorEsmeraldasUnipal S.A.iNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorEsmeraldasVía Unión y ProgresoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayas14 de AgostoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasBosque Protector Cerro BlancoCruz-García 2023
EcuadorGuayasBuenavista, 1 km S ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasCantera Cerro GrandeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasCapeiraPhoto by Eduardo Zavala
EcuadorGuayasChongónReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorGuayasComuna Casas ViejasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasComuna San MiguelPhoto by Luis Oyagata
EcuadorGuayasData de VillamiliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasDauleiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasDaule, River PlazaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasDuránPhoto by George Varela
EcuadorGuayasEl EmpalmeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasEl Morro, 1 km NE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasEl ZapalloiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasEngabao, 6 km N ofSolis 2023
EcuadorGuayasEstero La PiedraiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasEstero SaladoUSNM 8223; VertNet
EcuadorGuayasFinca Botánica AromáticaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasFinca ParedesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasGasolinera El MangoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasGuayaquil, Club LagunaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasGuayaquil, COPOLiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasGuayaquil, Plaza NeoclásicaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasHacienda La EvelinaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasHacienda ZambranoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasIsidro AyoraiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasIsla Manglecito GrandeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasIsla PunáNavarrete 2011
EcuadorGuayasIsla SangayiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasLas Culebras, 2 km NE ofMHNG-2306.014; collection database
EcuadorGuayasLas MercedesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasLomas de SargentilloiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasMameyiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasMilagroiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasPlaya El PeladoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasPlayas VillamiliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasPlayas, 5 km N ofTorres-Carvajal et al. 2019
EcuadorGuayasPlayas, TerrazasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasPosorjaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasProgresoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasPuerto AyalániNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasRancho BlancoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasReserva Manglares ChuruteiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasRío BlancoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasSamborondóniNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasSan MigueliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasSanta ElenaUSNM 204084; VertNet
EcuadorGuayasSinaí, 4 km SW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasVía a Cerro del MuertoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasVía a la CostaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorGuayasVía Playas–Data de PosorjaGuerra-Correa 2020
EcuadorGuayasYaguachiiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorGuayasZoo El PantanaliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaBolaspambaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaCerro VerdeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaCorregidorLoaiza-Lange 2023
EcuadorLojaFinca SagradaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaLa GuataraiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaLa MercediNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaLas ChinchasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaMacará, 6 km NW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaMirador CazaderosiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaPindaliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaProgresoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaReserva JorupeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaRío CampanasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLojaSan FelipeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos Ríos30 de Junio, 3 km E ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos RíosBosque Protector Pedro Franco DávilaCruz & Sánchez 2016
EcuadorLos RíosEl QuincheiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos RíosFinca BanalolyiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos RíosQuevedo, 1 km NW ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorLos RíosSan CarlosUSNM 284073; VertNet
EcuadorManabíAgua Blanca, MuseoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíBahía de CaraquezUSNM 14504; VertNet
EcuadorManabíBajo GrandeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíCalceta, 3 km S ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíCamaronesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíCañaveraliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíCanoaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíCasa LocaPhoto by Lisa Brunetti
EcuadorManabíCayo ParaísoLoaiza-Lange 2023
EcuadorManabíCerro SecoPhoto by Michi Maissen
EcuadorManabíChone iNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíChontillaliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíCoaque–PedernalesReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíCocosoloReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíCojimíes, 23 km E ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíConvento, 5 km W ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíEl NidoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíEl ParaísoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíEl PimientoiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíHacienda La DiligenciaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíHotel Nuevo AmaneceriNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíJamaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíJama CoaquePhoto by Matthew McGee
EcuadorManabíJama, 11 km E ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíJaramijóiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíJardín Botánico de PortoviejoPhoto by Lisa Brunetti
EcuadorManabíJipijapaPhoto by Isidro Moreira
EcuadorManabíLa CrespaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíLa HabanaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíLa PilaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíLa Pila, 6 km S ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíLa TomateraPhoto by Lisa Brunetti
EcuadorManabíLas MantasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíLos FrailesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíLos Senderos de TachilaPhoto by Tina Swan
EcuadorManabíMaicitoMHNG-1325.035; collection database
EcuadorManabíPajonaliNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíPedernalesiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíPortoviejo–PichinchaReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíPoza HondaPhoto by Lisa Brunetti
EcuadorManabíPuerto LópeziNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíPuerto TizariNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíPunta Napo, 4 km N ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíRancho EmyiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíRepresa Daule PeripaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíReserva Punta GordaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíRío CañaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíSalangoMHNG 2528.063; collection database
EcuadorManabíSalinasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíSan Antonio, 2 km SE ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíSan Isidro, 4 km W ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíSan LorenzoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíSan MateoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíSanta AnaMHNG-2533.092; collection database
EcuadorManabíTienda EdithaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorManabíTosagua–RocafuerteReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorManabíVía a Agua BlancaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichincha22 de OctubreiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaBalneario Las OrquídeasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaFinca AllpakuriiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaFinca La BonitaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaKapariReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPichinchaLa CelicaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaLa Celica, 2 km S ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaLa Concordia–Puerto QuitoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPichinchaPuerto Quito LodgeiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaRancho SuamoxPhoto by Rafael Ferro
EcuadorPichinchaRío Silanche Bird SanctuaryiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorPichinchaRío Verde–San LorenzoReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorPichinchaSan Francisco de La CaoniiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanta ElenaAncóniNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanta ElenaChanduyiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanta ElenaComuna Loma AltaPhoto by Carlos Martínez
EcuadorSanta ElenaLas CañasiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanta ElenaReserva Las BalsasReptiles of Ecuador book database
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasFinca La FloreanaiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasFinca VictoriaMHNG-1069,085
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasLa Concordia, 6 km W ofiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasSanto Domingo De Los ColoradosiNaturalist; photo examined
EcuadorSanto Domingo de los TsáchilasValle HermosoiNaturalist; photo examined
PeruTumbesEl CauchoiNaturalist; photo examined
PeruTumbesTumbesMCZ 176003; VertNet